Great Chinese Dan Ciaopin, reflecting above the reasons of disputed situations, has told so: ” At good system even the bad people can not manage evil, but if the system is bad, then even the good people can not create kindness and are compelled to manage evil “. Developing the idea with reference to those territories, lost in the past, Celestial, which Pekin would like to return in a bosom of a native land, Dan Ciaopin has decided to not impose socialism, and has thought up the formula ” one state – two systems “.
In the beginning 80 years it was sounded by him at first for Taiwan, and then, during historical meeting with Margaret Tatcher in September, 1982, for Hongkong and Macao. Century terms of rent came to an end, and Pekin has given to understand, that is firmly going them to return. To the present time the formula of Dan is successfully realized: Hongkong is returned under the Chinese jurisdiction since July 1, 1997, and Macao – since December 19, 1999. In what essence of this formula? The lost territories come back in structure of Peoples REPUBLIC of CHINA as its special administrative areas (SAA), autonomy, allocated a high degree.
Main – that SAA benefitted the state; all rest, as is spoken, at the discretion of a history. In what the high degree of an autonomy is expressed? The special administrative areas have distinct from parent state public build, cope under the own laws, have judicial system, independent of The centre, participate in the international not political organizations with the status “territory” (independently or in structure of a general delegation), have the own budget (on which have no right to encroach the central government) etc. So, actually speaking, also has taken place in a case with Hongkong.
All rights and freedom of the citizens available on the moment of transition SAA of Hongkong under jurisdiction of Peoples REPUBLIC of CHINA, are kept and are guaranteed by the law. Equally as the rights of possession of the enterprises and foreign investments are legislatively protected a private property. SAA of Hongkong has kept the status of free port and independent customs territory, role as international financial centre. The movement of the capitals remained free. SAA of Hongkong has kept an independent financial system.
Hongkong dollar has remained in circulation and is freely converted. China does not tax Hongkong with the taxes. SAA of Hongkong independently supports cultural communications with other countries. The economic interests of these countries in SAA of Hongkong are guaranteed by the law. The authorities of Hongkong independently give out the documents on entrance and departure, carry out passport control. On them the responsibility for maintenance of the public order still lays. Well, and the questions of a defense of territory are in conducting the central government.
The British military quota here has replaced Chinese. All these rules are fixed in accepted by Constant committee of AllChinese assembly of the national representatives in 1990 the Basic law of Peoples REPUBLIC of CHINA on Special administrative area Siangan. (Siangan – Chinese variant of the name of Hongkong. ) According to the Basic law, in which development the Hongkong representatives existing participated socio economic build remain constant within 50 years. However, the leaders of Peoples REPUBLIC of CHINA more than once explained, that in Hongkong all remain still and after 2047.
Already for a long time in USA there were by the best sellers novels about the English adventurers and merchants who have based in territory former English colony – Hongkong, dynasties of large trade houses, based oneself on transformation of this tiny island in one of the largest economic centres of the modern world. The fierce struggle between them for leadership occurs on a background of the novels of the Europeans with charming Chinese and incessant war between Chinese, Russian and western investigations.
All this can grasp the reader. However, the real history of this island where is more dramatic and is more similar to “fairy tale”, than any novels. In 1997 England has returned to China the sovereignty above Hongkong. From now on of Pekin began experiment, on which the future development of China and its role, as great power in 21 century will depend to no small degree. The Chinese management should prove to world community ability to embody in life anywhere not used earlier principle ” One state – two systems “.
And till now discussions concerning an opportunity of association ” under one roof ” of two opposite social and economic structures do not abate. Before there is some history. The European merchants have opened for themselves China in the beginning 16 centuries, they especially were interested by tea and silk, but to pay for them it was necessary by silver, that them arranged a little. And is rather speed they have found an output. In the English trade warehouses in India the huge quantity opium has collected and has appeared, that these goods began to use huge demand Chinese.
The emperor of China concerned with outflow of silver from the country and sharp growth of narcotism, has forbidden trade of opium. The answer on the part of Great Britain has not forced itself to wait. In 1841 the Englishmen have sent the forwarding case, blocked southern Chinese port Canton and the cancellations of rescript of the emperor and granting of England in constant possession an island of Hongkong have required. In that time on it was located small fishing township with the population in five thousand inhabitants.
In 1859 the Englishmen occuped a peninsula Coulun with a line of fine islets. The events these are known in a history, as ” Thebaic’s war “. This far outskirts of the Chinese empire from ancient times was occupied by the fishermen, peasants and pirates. In January 1881 English admirals Bremer has announced all these territories by English colony. In 1889 England has signed the agreement with China about transfer of the rights on all these territories under the sovereignty to the British crown for 99 years. Colony has operated by the governor , nominated by the queen of England.