EducationalTheories: Evaluation and discussion in terms of how are they seenfrom a UAE contexts/examples of theories, how can these theories beimplemented in a school setting, how difficult is it to implementthese theories and philosophies.
Theeducation theories have been viewed by socialists as a large bodythat comprises of micro and macro level studies, all with anindividual view and different logical explanations. The first theoryis the functionalist theory, which states that, just as the heart orbrain is necessary for human living, an education system is necessaryfor the survival and growth of society. According to Wynne(1963), thetheory assumes that the society and institutions within the societyat large are made up of interdependent parts, all working togetherand contributing to the functioning of the whole society to maintainorder and cohesion among the societal individuals
Thefunctional theory can be implemented in a school setting as astepping stone to bring together people from different walks of lifeto live with cohesion as a student body. Because it concentratesmostly on the structure status, it could be of great advantage forthe school in ensuring student performance (Lowe,2000).
Thesecond theory is the conflict theory, which assumes that tension in asociety and its parts are created by competing individuals andgroups. These competing groups are the rich and the poor. In the end,the rich end up having power over the poor. The implementation ofthis theory in schools will fully evolve around performance where byonly students with top marks are given priority and those with lowmarks given low attention (Rury,2002).
Theother theory is the interactive and interpretive theory. This theoryfocuses on the fact that individuals from same cultural backgroundtend to perceive a social situation the same because they share thesame culture. To implement this theory in schools would mean onlyaccommodating students of a certain culture (Ball,2000).
Evaluationand Discussion in terms of how they are seen from a UAE Context
Fromthe UAE context, it has somehow modified the functional theory to goin line with its society considering there is poor and rich classwhich attracts both private and government school’s sectors. It hastried to level the plains by regulating the private sector in that itprovides regulations, resolutions, and follow-up procedures for theimplementation of national policy guidelines in the privatesector.The UAE supplies textbooks to private schools that follow thenational syllabus. It also sends inspectors to supervise privateschool teachers who may attend the training courses held for theircounterparts working in government schools this ensure equality inthe education sector.
Howcan these theories be implemented in a school setting?
Fromthe above theories, only functionalist theory can be implemented inschool as its principles are in line with the morals of the modernsociety. On the other hand, the conflict theory not only does notonly encourage discrimination in societybut also reflects a non-social society. With this in mind, it is notadvisable to be implemented. Lastly, the interactive and interpretivetheory is fully based on tribalism and racism to the extent ofsuggesting that schools should be based on cultures. This theory isnot fit for implementation in schools (Jackson & Marsden, 1962).
howdifficult is it to implement these theories and philosophies?
Wehave seen that only the functional theory actually has a chance ofbeing implemented in a school set up as its focus is quit in linewith the modern society point of view. On the other hand, it is verydifficult to implement this theory in a school as it brings allsociety social classes as one. well it would be appropriate to saythat it is second to impossible to do that as different socialclasses in the society always want to be associated and treated in acertain way, which from the look of things it is quit difficult toreal mix these children into an entity. (Herbert Spencer 1820-1903)
EducationEquity. Discuss its meaning, dimensions, roots, how can it bepromoted at schools, limitations, and constraints, links toglobalization, how/ why did it start.
Educationequity is the state where all children are given all opportunities toget quality in education without any form of discrimination. Itfocuses on ensuring that education systems favor all students,irrespective of their economic and social status. Education equitywas first started in Africa but later spread to Asia and othercontinents. (Jackson & Marsden, 1962). It was noted that someschools offered better quality education than others. Therefore,there was a need to champion for equity so as to achieve economicgrowth among other benefits of education. Education equity can bepromoted in schools by changing school policies to eliminate graderepetition, avoid early student selection, manage school choice toavoid segregation and increase inequities, make funding strategiesresponsive to students and school’s needs, as well as helpingdisadvantaged students and schools to improve (Kessens,1984). However,education equity has its limitations. For instance, the educationsystem is not the same in all countries, and also, different childrencome from different backgrounds and. Therefore, it is hard to caterfor both. Consequently, education equity is constrained withincountry’s education system and harmonizing education systems fordifferent countries is not so easy though still achievable (Zia,2006). Educationequity leads to quality education for all and quality education leadsto globalization since different regions or countries of the worldwill be united with one or same education policy that favors all.
Educationequity in a UAE perspective
Womenare disfavored in the education sector in the MENA region which UAEis a part of. Women illiteracy level stands at an average of 24%.That is still a high level of illiteracy considering that the UN aimsat bringing about education equity for all. The plight of womeneducation here costs the region both socially and economically.However, some measures are being put in place to solve this menaceand ensure education equity. Some of these measures includes theallocation of more funds towards women-focused educationalinstitutions.
TheUN also does deals with MENA countries to boost education equity.According to the MENA report, 21 deals have taken place in the regionsince 2003 and all of this focusing on the education sector in theregion. Ten out of these 21 deals were with UAE-based companies whichaims at boosting education equity in UAE.
Howthe education equity measures can be implemented in a school setting?
Thebest way to enhance education equity in schools would be to set uppolicies that favors the same. The policies can be set to try andachieve the following according to OECD policy brief of January,2008.
Limit early tracking and streaming and postpone academic selection.
Manage school choice so as to contain the risks to equity.
In upper secondary education, provide attractive alternatives, remove dead ends and prevent dropout.
Offer second chances to gain from education.
Identify and provide systematic help to those who fall behind at school and reduce year repetition.
Strengthen the links between home and school to help disadvantaged parents help their children to learn.
Respond to diversity and provide for the successful inclusion of migrants and minorities within mainstream education.
Provide strong education for all, giving priority to early childhood provision and basic schooling.
Direct resources to the students with the greatest needs.
Set concrete targets for more equity, particularly related to low school attainment and dropouts.
Difficultiesin achieving education equity in a school setting.
Themeasures stated by UN to ensure education equity are meant to beglobal but sometimes it is hard to implement them in some schools.For instance, the cultural norms might interfere with the measures.In UAE, women are supposed to take care of the young children andhandle other household chores, living them with less opportunities.
Thefamily background of different students in the schools also hinderseducation equity measures since cheap does not mean the same valuefor rich and poor students.
Itis also hard to entirely change education policies and some of thepolicies do not provide room for educational equity measures tooperate.
Socialchange and economic change how are they related to education,reforms, innovations and globalization.
Socialand economic change relate to education as schools, and educationalinstitutions are social amenities that bring together people fromdifferent societies. (Walford&Daun, 2004). When the social statuschanges, the education system also changes in rhyme with the socialchange. Likewise, education sector needs funds to thrive and,therefore, if the economy changes for the better, there will bequality education. If there is a drop in the economy, the educationsystem is negatively affected (Kessens, 1984). Onreforms too, social and economic changes have effects. Reforms arebrought about by the people. When people mingle, travel, or learn, tthey tend to open up their minds, think deeper and bring aboutreforms. Also, money is needed to ensure that reforms occur insociety. Economic changes will affect reforms. Social and economicchanges may also bring about the availability of resources, bothhuman and capital, leading to innovations, people travelling from onecountry to another, interacting and, sharing ideas (Lowe, 2000).Consequently, people from different countries, races, ethnicitiesand, continents will live in harmony with one another as if they wereone global village, leading to globalization.
Socialand economic changes and their relation with education, reforms,innovations and globalization in UAE.
TheUAE is developing both socially and economically and these changeshave taken effect and consequently affected other sectors likeeducation. The government has realized the potential of qualityeducation in economic development. The government has set up moreschools and pays school fees for needy students. This leads to higherliteracy levels which consequently boosts the livelihoods ofcitizens.
Thesocial and economic changes also live people with more knowledge andcapital to put the knowledge into practice. These enables them toreform existing policies and sectors, come up up with new innovationsand consequently develop policies and materials that much those inthe world leading to globalization.
Socialand economic changes in a school setting.
Thesechanges affect the education sector by improving the state ofschools. Some children are also moved to better schools when theirsocial statuses change. Schools also receive more funding and betterhuman capital.
Difficultiesin dealing with social and economic changes in a school setting.
Sometimesthese changes lead to students transferring from schools, teacherstoo transferring or changing profession, sometimes conflicts emanatedue to financial issues and money-handling among the schoolstakeholders and sometimes the change might cause students to dropout of school due to lack of fees or chaos back at home.
Theme4Discuss the forces of globalisation and localisation.
Globalisationand localisation revolve around rapidly expanding flows of goods,services, and capital across the national borders. The terms arecommonly used as a shorter way of describing the spread ofproduction, communication and technologies across the world (Jackson& Marsden, 1962). Themain driving force of globalisation and localisation also revolvearound infrastructure, which is the key component ofindustrialization. Industrialization normally acts as the steppingstone for production of finished goods, which, with the improvedinfrastructure, leads to increased production of goods to the extentthat they exhaust the local market. The excess goods are thenexported. Another key force for globalisation and localisation istechnology. It can be said that a country whose technology is at agrowth steady rate, the rate of production also increases(Walford&Daun,2004).
Educationis still a driving force for globalisation and localisation as itacts as the back-bone to all other factors. The supporting factorsare that with rapid and continuous emphasis on education andresearch, the level of all other factors raises to co-relate with thelevel of education (Almås&Lawrence, 2003).
Globalizationseen from a UAE context
TheUAE context of globalisation view it as a threat and in the same timethe way forward for it. As UAE has rich religious, social andcultural influence from the Arab world, globalization affect it dueto the fact foreigners are being attracted to the opportunities inpresent and through this the country enjoys it benefits economic wisein the same time trying to safe guard its culture.
howcan globalizationand localization be implemented in a school setting?
Asglobalization is now a wide spreading ideology it has proven toaffect the education sector thus requiring its inclusion in thesystem. The now goal of to implement it into the school system inthat schools must promote a higher order and divergent thinking amongschool pupils. This is increase the student thinking diversificationcapability in interacting with the outside world.
howdifficult is it to implement globalization and localization?
Implementingglobalization and localization in schools is very difficult due tothe social, culture and the religious aspect of the UAE. Itimplementation would mean diluting the UAE cultural aspect which isheavy influenced by the entire Arab fraternity.
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