Running head: THE COLD WAR AND U.S. DIPLOMACY 1
TheCold War and U.S. Diplomacy
TheCold War and U.S. Diplomacy
TheUnited States has been governed by presidents who adopt differentdoctrines to deal with diplomacy issues with other nations of theworld. This paper aims to discuss the doctrine on US Diplomacyemployed by President Nixon during the cold war period. The paperalso delves into the treaties reached between the Us and the Sovietgovernments.
PresidentNixon continued the doctrine of shunning communism and thereforesupplying weapons but not troops to the nations that were engaged inany form of war to fight off communism (Ross, & Jiang, 2001). Thepresident was particularly involved in the strategic arms limitationtalks (SALT) with Brezhnev, the secretary general from the Soviet in1972, as part of the endeavor to reduce the effects of the cold warthrough diplomacy. The formal talks began in 1969 in Finland, and inthe following two years, the two sides engaged in fierce negotiations(Lebow, & Risse-Kappen, 1995). The USA was concerned that theSoviet was continuing its submarine-launched missiles (SLMs)ballistic construction. President Nixon and Brezhnev signed the ABMagreement in 1972 in Moscow (Litwak, 2000). The USA and the Sovietagreed to reduce the number of nuclear missiles in their stock ofweapons. The treaty limited the number of the ammunition for thedefense to just 200 interceptors for each while allowing each of thecountries to construct not more than two defense sites with oneprotecting the respective national capital. The agreement alsostopped each of the sides from enlarging their forces (Litwak, 2000).
PresidentNixon followed the doctrine of supplying the weapons but not troopsto countries that were engaged in fighting off communism. He signedAntiballistic missile agreement in 1972 with the Soviet Union toreduce the threat of the nuclear weapons from the country (Richard,1992). The milestone was informed by the fact that the America didnot want to allow the Soviet to extend its influence around theworld. The American government was determined to curtail theexpansion of the Soviet Union and hence why it was supplying theweapons to any of the nations that were fighting off communism andits development. It provided the weapons but not the troops to reducethe effects of the cold war and high levels of suspicion that existedbetween the two nations at the time (Richard, 1992).
Thediplomatic efforts are especially significant to the US and othercountries because the Soviet could engage in any warfare or interferein the internal affairs of other nations with the idea to spread itscommunist ideologies. The efforts also reduced the tensions betweenthe USA and the Soviet, which had originated from their collaborationin the Second World War against the Nazi regime of Germany.
Accordingto the Nixon`s doctrine, the United States would adhere to all thetreaties entered to allay any fears from any country including theSoviet Union that the agreements entered at the time were only aimedat achieving short-term objections (Litwak, 2000). The country wasready to demonstrate its commitment to uphold all treaties as a wayto get the goodwill of the allies and foes alike (Richard, 1992). Thedoctrine also ensured that the US provided a shield in case thenuclear efforts by the Soviet Union, or any other country threatenedthe freedom of any of its allies or any other country whose existencethe United States considered significant (Litwak, 2000). The doctrinealso ensured that in cases involving different types of invasion, theAmerican government would provide military and financial assistancewhen asked by the concerned country, but of course, that had to be intandem with the entered treaty and all other commitments. The UnitedStates would also enter into direct negotiations with the affectedcountry to provide manpower so that such nations can defendthemselves against the external aggression.
Asa conclusion, President Nixon adopted a doctrine whereby the USgovernment would supply the weapons and not the troops to thecountries engaged in fighting off communism ideologies. The rationalewas to prevent the influence that the Soviet and China were having onthe rest of the world. As a result, he engaged in a number oftreaties aimed at achieving the mission
Lebow,R. N., & Risse-Kappen, T. (Eds.). (1995). Internationalrelations theory and the end of the Cold War(p. 23). New York: Columbia University Press.
Litwak,R. (2000). Roguestates and US foreign policy: containment after the Cold War.Woodrow Wilson Center Press.
RichardH. Immerman. (1992). JohnFoster Dulles and the Diplomacy of the Cold War.Princeton University Press.
Ross,R. S., & Jiang, C. (2001). Re-examiningthe cold war: US-China diplomacy, 1954-1973(Vol. 203). Harvard Univ Asia Center.