The period of industrialization in Europe and America is not only characterized through the onset of modernization and technological advancements. The period is also known for the famous artists and philosophers who had lived during the said time. One of which is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, a German philosopher who said that history whose works on the philosophy of history operates through the dictates of reason. The ideas regarding philosophical idealism were also rampant. Most philosophers include Immanuel Kant, George Berkeley, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and Hegel.
On this era also, the idea of utilitarianism was born through the initiatives of John Stuart Mill, proposing that an action can be justified if it gives the greater good for the reader number of people. In the field of arts, though, the idea l’art pour l’art or arts for arts’ sake become known. Proponents of the principle believe that a work of art is complete in itself and should never be subjected to any moral or didactic purpose. Charles Dickens was one of the leading English writers during the time. Most of his stories were characterized by his unique way weaving realism with fantasy.
Critical Question #2 (page 362): Modernity and tradition, I believe can never have the same proportion in a society. For example, some societies favour modern medicine than the traditional or maybe the other way around. Benefits of modernity, though, can only be accepted and considered a positive breakthrough in history if the people will not erase and forget completely their traditional way of living.
Bishop, Philip E. Adventures in the Human Spirit, 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2005