Summative examination Tomas essay


Summative examination


The problem that Tomas suffers places him under the intellectualdisability category of IDEA. It is clear from the case that Tomas isunable to complete some tasks such as writing his name or even,identifying shapes and following two step instructions. One of themajor characteristics of intellectual disability is problem withvocabulary which is manifested in Tomas. It is evident from the casethat Tomas is unable to remember simple things and he is laggingbehind his peers in terms of cognitive development. It is abundantlyclear that this form of disability has greatly affected thedevelopment of Tomas. He will not achieve education milestones thathis peers will achieve.


According to the case presented, Harper must be suffering from oneof the disorders under the Other Health Impairment category of IDEA.It is evident from the case that Harper is good at some subjects suchas mathematics and has immense interest in studying the weather.However, he is oversensitive to environmental stimuli of noise.According to the case, Harper is extremely disturbed by the noiseduring school assemblies and even in school environment. This is adisorder under the Other Health Impairment category called theheightened alertness to environmental stimuli, in this case noise.This disability may affect the child’s educational developmentsince he may avoid noisy companies.


It is clear from the case that Austin was hit on the head during theaccident that he was involved in. He has demonstrated signs of pooreducational performance including in mathematics which was previouslyhis best subject. Traumatic brain injury has been identified as acategory of disability since it affects the cognitive functioning ofthe victim such as Austin and this may affect their performance inschool. It is clear from the case that Austin’s memory was impairedby the injury since he has difficulty in remembering various thingsin school. It is essential to note that the IDEA clearly states thatinjuries to the brain developed from birth do not count asdisabilities in this category (Boyle &amp Scanlon, 2010).

Part 2 essay: Traumatic Brain injury disability

This is a form of disability that requires the cooperationamong the parents, teachers and the medical staff in trying to helpthe student. It is essential to state that the student who suffers atraumatic brain injury may develop difficulties in memory,comprehension, relationships and his or her performance at school maydecline significantly. Students with traumatic brain injury may findit extremely difficult learning at the same pace with the otherlearners of their age and academic level (Vaishnavi &amp Rabins,2015). The language of the student and his or her culture will affecthis learning at school. For instance, the student with TBI may havegrown up using a language that is different from the schoolinstruction language. Considering that students with traumatic braininjury have issues with language and communication, a second languageof instruction may prove extremely difficult and challenging for thestudent. It would be prudent for the student to get used to the samelanguage both at school and at home. This would make it easy for thestudent to understand and learn in school.

The culture of the student with traumatic brain injury ca alsoaffect his or her learning and recovery. It is essential to note thatthere are some cultures that are opposed to medication for traumaticbrain injury and therefore it is the role of the healthcarepractitioner to explain to the family the needs of the medication andthe effects of failing to treat the child. More often than not, thereis the problem of language barrier where the healthcare practitioneris unable to explain to the family the causes and the effects of TBIto the child’s learning abilities and progress. Some cultures mayprohibit having hospital visits during their cultural holidays. Itis, therefore, critical for the teachers and the healthcare staff toschedule checkups during the days when there are cultural holidays orany other cultural activity. In some cultures, such as the Africanculture, the changes in behavior and poor performance in school isnormally associated with some wrongful acts to the ancestors(Vaishnavi &amp Rabins, 2015). This implies that the parents and orthe family of the student would not take the issue of medicationseriously. It is critical for the medical staff to explain to suchcultures the effects of traumatic brain injury and the need formedication.

The family background of the student may influence the learning ofthe student with the traumatic brain injury. It is essential to notethat the parents of the child must be fully involved in the recoveryprocess of the child and must engage the teachers in enhancing theacademic performance of their child (Jantz, 2014). If the child comesfrom a family whose culture impedes the support of the recoveryprocess, it is clear that the learning process will be negativelyaffected. A family which has had a similar case previously will bemore willing to assist the learning recovery process of the studentthan a family that has never experienced such as problem.

Traumatic brain injury affects the cognitive development ofchildren. Research has indicated that students who suffer TBIexperience difficulties remembering simple things and instructions.Additionally, students who have suffered TBI have difficultiessolving simple calculations especially in mathematics (Jantz, 2014).It is also critical to state that students with traumatic braininjury will find it extremely difficult to reason and thinkcorrectly. TBI affects the thinking rate hence making victims tothink extremely slowly. This will directly affect their learninglevels at school. Another cognitive effect of TBI is lack ofconcentration among the victims. Research has indicated that theconcentration span is extremely short and this affects the academicprogress of such students.

Language development of the students who suffer TBI is alsoadversely affected. Research has indicated that victims of TBI havedifficulties in talking and hence communicating with the teachers andor the students (Jantz, 2014). Scientists assert that the damage tothe brain may affect the area that is tasked with speech developmenthence affecting the ability to talk for the victims. It is alsoessential to state that the students may have a problem understandingor hearing and therefore this contributes to their problem in speech.

The failure to communicate effectively will definitely affect thesocial life of the victim. The student may have difficultiescommunicating with the peer and this may affect his or herrelationship with them. It is also evident that the learning speedand progress of the victim may not match that of the other studentsand therefore they might not be patient with him hence affectingtheir relationship with him (Vaishnavi &amp Rabins, 2015). This willhave an adverse effect to the emotional development of the child. Theaspect of being lonely and lagging in educational progress willaffect the child’s emotional development and he might even developdepression.

Teachers need to develop instructional strategies that will meet theneeds of students with Traumatic brain injury. Teachers must beextremely patient with these students as they take time tocomprehend. Teachers must also ensure that they give information tosuch students in bits to ensure that they understand (Schoenbrodt,2014). It is also essential to ensure that the students areincorporated into the class and interact with the other studentsfreely. Follow up on the student is extremely necessary andcorrecting him or her wherever he or she is wrong.


Boyle, J. R., &amp Scanlon, D. (2010).&nbspMethods andstrategies for teaching students with mild disabilities:A case-based approach. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth.

Jantz, P. B. (2014).&nbspWorking with traumatic brain injury inschools: Transition, assessment, and intervention.

Schoenbrodt, L. (2014).&nbspChildren with traumatic brain injury:A parent`s guide. Bethesda, MD: Woodbine House.

Vaishnavi, S., &amp Rabins, P. V. (2015).&nbspThe traumatizedbrain: A family guide to understanding mood,memory, and behavior after brain injury.