Fora very long time, there has been growing concern in regards to thequality of the environment. Noise pollution has increased in the pastfew decades. The increase in noise pollution is attributed to theexistence of serious pollutant (Vlachokostas et al., 9) With theincrease in the noise levels, the effects of noise have alsoincreased. Noise refers to the sound that is unwanted. Being unwantedmeans that the sound is rather too loud or unnecessary. Noise oftenhas adverse effects on individuals and the environment alike. Thispaper seeks to explore the different types of noise pollution, theeffects of noise pollution on human and nature (Vlachokostas et al.,12). Further, in the discussions, some of the agencies that advocatefor end to noise pollution and the existing laws are also discussed.In regards to the law, a key question to be answered is if the lawapplies to noisemakers.
Typesof Noise Pollution
Noiseis classified into three main categories. These categories includeindustrial noise, transport noise and neighborhood noise. Industrialnoise refers to the sound with high intensity that arises from theindustry machines. Machines that are in various factories,industries, and mills cause this type of noise (Goines and Hagler 1).One instance of this type of noise pollution is the noise iswitnessed in the steel industry and those who work in the heavyindustries. Most of the individuals exposed to this form of pollutionwork for eight hours, hence the pollution is at times referred to asoccupational pollution.
Thistype of noise pollution mainly happens through the traffic noise thatoccurs from the roads, rail, and aircrafts. This type of noise isattributed to increase in the number of automobiles purchases. Theincreases in these automobiles have further worsened the situationhence leading to increased levels of noise in the transport sector.The noise levels in most of the residential area within the citiesoccur due to vehicle pollution. The high degree of this noisepollution leads to deafening in the elderly(Stansfeld and Matheson 255).
Thiskind of pollution happens and includes a range of disturbances withinthe community that arise from the household gadgets. Some of thecommon sources of neighborhood noise include musical instruments,VCRs, the telephones, radios, televisions, loudspeakers among others.Since the industrial revolution, the noise level in the environmenthas been on the increase nearly every decade.
Effectsof Noise Pollution on Human and Nature
Noisepollution has many effects. These effects are both on the environmentand health of individuals. First, the exposure of humans to noisepollution has effects on the health as well as behaviors (Singh andDavar 181). Exposure to noise can easily lead to the damage of themost vital parts of the human body, the ear. The noise lead tohearing impairment which can either be temporary or permanent. Often,when the sound level increases and it crosses the 70dB mark itbecomes noise to the ear (Stansfeld and Matheson 245). Normally, whenthe degree of noise gets to more than 80 decibels, there are damagingeffects caused by the ear. Upon exposure of humans to extremely loudnoise, that is, noise above 100 decibels, for a long period thenthere results in an irreparable damage. Notably, this can lead to apermanent loss of hearing (Singh and Davar 183).
Noisehas effects on sleep and sleep disturbances can interfere with thegeneral welfare and health of individuals. A noise interrupts sleepof persons and whenever it happens, the person in most cases feelsirritated and uncomfortable. Individuals who are affected regardingtheir sleep often show a sharp dip in their energy levels and out ofthis they become extremely fatigued. With extreme fatigue,individuals have reduced activity levels. In most cases the abilityof persons to operate and deliver on their duties efficiently isoften affected (Wayne et al., 11)
Noisepollution has an effect on the mental health of individuals. Usually,with continuous exposure of individuals to loud music, they developincreased stress level. With increased stress levels, individualsaffected are likely to develop violent behavior. Additionally, withconstant noise in the environment, one can easily suffer fromheadaches, become tense and even anxious. These effects are likely tolead to disturbance in the emotional balance of individuals.
Noisepollution affects the cardiovascular tissues. High levels of noisecan result in increased blood pressure as the noise is known toconstrict the arteries and disrupt the flow of blood. Owing to thisactivity, the heart rate also increases as the number of heart beatsevery minute increases (Singh and Davar 181). With the suddenabnormal change in blood, the body stands higher chances ofdeveloping cardiovascular diseases in the long-run.
Justlike humans, noise pollution does not occur in a vacuum and haseffects on the environment in which humans live. Through the man-madenoise pollution, the earth has increasingly become an uncomfortableplace to stay. The noise has had effects among others hearing lossand increased heart rate (Zannin, Diniz and Barbosa 354). In mostcases, the high-intensity sound leads to fear and thus makesindividuals to abandon their habitats. The move to leave the habitatsis mainly driven by the effects on the reproductive function, effectson the productivity, as well as effects on the feeding and breedingpatterns of the animals. A case in point is the noise that comes fromthe aircraft that has been directly linked to the reduced activity ofthe wide animals.
Noisepollution also has effects on the vegetation. For most plants to growand thrive, they require cool and peaceful environment (Zannin, Dinizand Barbosa 356). Noise pollution has an effect on the quality ofcrops. Additionally, noise has effects on the construction ofbuildings as noise affects the foundation that forms most of thebuildings, the bridges, and monuments. Noise often creates waves thatcan at times be dangerous and harmful to the construction of thebuilding.
Therefore,noise has effects on both the human health and environment. With theexistence of life, noise is indeed inevitable. Noise results from thevarious activities of humans. Even though it is a bit difficult to doaway with the noise completely, it is, however, possible to reducethe effects of noise pollution like putting in place someprecautionary measures. Some of these measures include using thedual-paned windows, easy maintenance of the sources of noise likefactory and machines.
Lawsand Agency against Noise Pollution
Differentjurisdictions have different laws that are in place to help incontrolling noise pollution. The laws that exist are often incategories. Among the laws in existence include those that govern themaximum environmental noise levels, the procedures set to measure thesound levels, the standards and principles for motor vehicle soundperformance, off-road and highway noise levels.
Acase in point for the law that is in place is the Noise control Act42 U.S.C set in place in 1972 (Timbers and Wirth 9). This act statesthat the noise that is inadequately controlled is dangerous to bothhealth and welfare of the population of a nation, mainly the urbanareas. The act also recognizes some of the sources of noise and amongthem include equipment, machinery, vehicles, and appliances. TheNoise Control Act of 1972 sets in place the national policy to helpin promoting an environment for all the Americans free from the noisethat is harmful to the health and wealth of individuals (Timbers andWirth 15). Through the act, there are set procedures and guidelinesto establish the means for effective coordination of Federal researchactivities in the noise control. The act also authorizes theestablishment of Federal noise emission standards for the differentproducts that are distributed in commerce. The Act also provides thepublic with information regarding the noise emission levels and noisereduction features of certain products.
Isthe Law Applicable to Noisemakers?
Thelaw is not clear on noisemakers as individuals, but it is clear onthe sources of noise. This then means that if machinery, equipment,or factories are considered as noisemakers, then the law applies tothem as noisemakers.
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