Raceis a social construction since it is more of a social category thanbiological. It is real in the society, and it has real consequencesand effects. It shapes the way people see themselves, as well as seeother people. Further, race is a social construction because there isno genetic evidence for a race. Biologically, all human beings are99.9% similar in terms of genetics, where 0.1% genetic variationaccounts for physical differences. There are no genes or a group ofgenes to predict skin color among all Whites or all Black.
Accordingto conflict theory, family contributes to social inequality byreinforcing patriarchy and economic inequality. Secondly, the theoryviews a family as the source of conflict such emotional cruelty andphysical violence among family members. Conversely, functionalismtheory urges that a family perform vital functions in society. Forinstance, it provides social identity, practical and emotionalsupport to its members, as well as regulates sexual activities andreproduction. It is also a primary unit for children to socialize.
Massmedia, as an agent of gender socialization, is discriminative againstwomen. It views women’s role as less significant compared to men’srole. It also stereotypes women roles as mothers and wives, whoseresponsibilities are to stay at home, do house chores, and take careof their husbands and children. They suggest women’s main goal isto appear beautiful and please men, while men’s main goals are tosucceed in life. For instance, based on television commercial ads,women role is to do laundry and home chores, while men drive cars anddo other professional jobs.
Accordingto conflict theory, formal education promotes social inequality.Conflict theorists say this is because it locks learners into fasterand lower tracks, use of standardized tests, social class, race, andethnicity. Additionally, conflict theorists urge that formaleducation lead to learning disparities that correspondinglyinfluences social inequality. On the other hand, functionalists urgethat formal education play vital roles in the society. They includesocialization, social placement, social integration, and socialinnovation. It also plays other latent functions such as childcare,establishment of peer relationships, as well as reducingunemployment.