SPEAKER NOTES 2
Solidwaste is any refuse, sludge, and garbage from a waste treatmentfacility. These are materials originating from various miningactivities such as oil and gas exploration. The need to manage wastecomes from the realization of the various implications these refusehave on the environment. As a result, solid waste management [SWM] isbecoming increasingly relevant for academic purposes. This is due tothe growing need to enhance environmental conservation and safety.This study believes that an important step in realizing the goals ofsustainability is by looking at waste exist points companies,processes, and practices that lead to environmental pollution. Boththe PDO and [Oxy] present two corporations which when well-monitoredand examined, can save the environment a significant distress.
PetroleumDevelopment Oman [PDO] operates exclusively in the Sultanates andcovers 100,000 Kilometer squares of the Oman region. It boasts of 130oil fields that are approximately 6,000 oil and gas producing wells.The primary objectives of the Oman Company is to engage effectively,responsibly and safely with the environment and the society – asthe firm explores oil for national and regional consumption. Thecorporation first pursues a high level of performance and efficiencyto derive profits to stakeholders, staff and the society at large. Animportant consideration for the company is to uphold the values ofrespect, transparency and integrity. It also champions diversity andinclusion. Indeed, the BPO has employed 20 workers that are tasked toascertain there is no discrimination or manipulation. The companyofficial website states that ‘BPO operates as a corporate citizenand takes into consideration the principles of environmental safetyand protection.’ It also practices social corporate responsibilityactivities throughout the Sulnates regions.
ThePDO Company has a wider scope of operation. The first one of these isthe Enhanced Oil Recovery [EOR] practices that seek to achieve 100%oil recoveries in wells. The three recovery practices undertaken bythe company include chemical, thermal recovery, and Miscible GasInjection.
The miscible gas injection – The process of squeezing gas into a reservoir making it possible for the oil to move up and down the wells. The resulting mixture is a miscible fluid that can easily be extracted.
Thermal recovery – Built on the concept that heat makes a fluid thicker and mobile and hence easy to extract. Thermal recovery in the oil wells has a range of steps including in-situ combustion, cyclic steam injection, and steam drives.
Chemical – Polymer is used as a thickening agent as it makes it thicker and more viscous. The resultant is a highly mobile fluid whose mobility is close to that of crude oil.
TheTHREE practices are noted to generate a lot of solid waste in form ofcompounds, sludge, and refuse. There are also deposits of thickfluids and some drainage wells are not well-cleaned afterexploration. The Omani Organization has therefore deployed a range ofSMW practices. These practices are intended to reduce the amount ofhazardous compounds such carbon pollutants and sludge. The practicesalso aim to ensure there is a high level of soil and waterprotection.
Omanilaw prohibits direct disposal of waste in both the aquatic andterrestrial environments. The following laws are relevant to oil orgas extraction: Ministerial Decision 18/93, States the Regulationsfor Management of Hazardous Waste. The regulations set in the RoyalDecree aim to minimize the level of pollution and to ensure thatorganizations and corporations are responsible for the waste theygenerate. The Royal Decree number 114/2001 is the latest version ofOman environment law and is considered as the main reference oflegislation on environmental protection. It lists the rules andprinciples set to ensure the safety of Oman Environment along withpenalties to violators (University of Victoria, 2014).
OccidentalPetroleum Corporation is the largest oil and gas producing company inUnited States based on equity market capitalization. The company’ssuccess is built on strongly technical capacities, ability to buildpartnerships, and business acumen. At the end of 2015, the companyhad over 35,000 employees and contractors in different regions. Themain objectives of the firm is to generate revenues, to powerindustries and sectors relying on gas and petroleum, to enhancecorporate social responsibility, and to ensure maximum safety to theenvironment. The Delaware Corporation has segmented its operationsinto selected categories.
Theoil and gas production – Relies on advanced and superior technologyto reach into underground oil layers. This operation aims to boostproduction from both natural and mature gas. It accessesharder-to-recover well mines.
TheMid-streams and Marketing – Concerned with gathering, storage, andtransportation of hydrocarbons. This section of the company investsin firms that conduct similar activities of purchasing and marketinghydrocarbons.
OxyChem– This is a subsidiary specializing in plastics, pharmaceuticalsand water treatment compounds. The sector was established tocapitalize on the company’s by-products which were seen as highlymarketable and important for the production of important chemicals.
Froma close analysis of the two case studies from the companies, a rangeof findings were identified and the following recommendations weregiven:
PetroleumDevelopment Oman [PDO] should consider enhancing the petroleumpractices and activities in the far location from the civilizedplaces and the natural habitat locations within the country. Two,they should increase the security and safety of oil and gas shipmentprocess to avoid leakage accidents. Three, enhancing the usage of ITand latest technical infrastructure to analyze the level ofproduction waste and support the practices of SWM and waste reductionwith the automation functions of technology. Four, they need to stayupdated with the national and international laws and regulations ofSWM to comply with them accordingly and apply the SWM processprecisely. Five, using different SWM management practices instead ofrelying on a few methods of SWM practices and considering the bestcontingency selection of SWM process that will be the most suitablefor a certain level and situation of the company waste. And six,there is the need to increase the awareness and the recognition ofthe managers and the employees of the company on the importance ofindustrial SWM practices and functions in the field of oil, gas &petrol.
WasteHierarchy is an important step for handling a diverse of solid wastein oil and gas industries. The four primary steps critical inmanaging any solid waste include source reduction, this is theprocess of minimizing the total volume of waste as much as possible.Source reducing also means to minimize toxic, arsenic, and otherdangerous compounds by changing processes and operation models.
Animportant step in waste management is recycling and re-using wherebythe company identifies the most useful components in the generatedwaste. The OxyChem Company, a subsidiary of the OPC is a classicdepartment which examines how selected elements can be applied inwater treatment, pharmaceuticals, and plastics. An important part ofsolid waste management is treatment and this refer to any processthat changes the chemical, physical or biological function andcharacter of a waste to make it less hazardous. A range of treatmentpractices can be leveraged these include thermal treatment,biological treatment, filtration, land farming, incineration, andland spreading. After treatment of waste is over, the remaining wastecan be discharged, dumped, spilled or injected in landmines, buried,or even solidified.
Healthand safety of operations is a critical step of any solid wastemanagement. The physical well-being of workers should be taken careof to ensure that personnel are not diagnosed with illnesses stemmingfrom gas and oil. Part of the effort to enhance the safety is toprovide employees with the latest protective clothing. These refer toclothes and dressing that make it hard for workers to come intocontact with heavy metals and dangerous compounds. Health and safetycan best be championed when oil generating firms adhere to nationalstandards on employee health and safety like those outlined by theOccupational Safety and Hazards Association, [OSHA].National,regional and international conventions are also critical to ensurethe practices advanced by oil exploring firms are at par withenvironmental standards.