Shaping Forces in US Intelligence essay

The United States Intelligence is a foundation of air and space intelligence for the Department of Defense. It generates incorporated and predictive air space information with specific intelligence to permit military operations and power transformation. This Intelligence organization was formed and developed during the World War interlude. Despite the fact that it has had a variety of embodiment over time, intelligence has traditionally cooperated in providing hold up to U. S. military forces and in shaping the policies of the United States headed for other nations.

Its aim is to accomplish the requirements of current and future war fighters. It shows the approaches developed concerning the nature of upcoming challenges to America’s countrywide security. The shaping forces include operations to counter state opposition, counterterrorism, counterinsurgency and nation support activities. The foundation addresses responses from U. S. national security strategy (Johnson, 2007). Throughout the Revolutionary World War I, the intelligence craft was ardently used by many politicians including General George Washington.

Research indicates that Washington salaried an agent to reside in Boston and report the movements of British forces by using secret correspondence. He employed methods of recruiting agents, setting up spy rings, devising secret techniques of reporting, analyzing the unprocessed intelligence gathered by recruited agents and he also mounted an all-embracing campaign to mislead the British armies. Evidence from the study presents General George Washington as a victor both at Yorktown and in the Continental Army to prevaricate the British for the period of the winters at Valley Forge.

When Washington came to power he funded the intelligence operations through the finance sector. In the same year there was establishment of the Secret Service Fund. The cash allocated to the Secret Service Fund increased from $40,000 to $1 million. This historical record shows the Executive relied on intelligence as a tool in succeeding Administrations. However, in the War of 1812, the military intelligence was unsuccessful to find out the advancing British troops in the Washington Capital (Worley, 2006). Intelligence recuperated eminence during the Civil War.

In cooperation, the Union and Confederate headship treasured intelligence information and instituted spy networks. Records assert that Confederate forces launched the Signal and Secret Service Bureau to get northern newspapers. The Union preserved and retained the intelligence service of the Departments of the Navy, State and War. Union codes breakers deciphered Confederate messages and discovered the manufacture of Confederate currency were in New York. In June of 1861, President Lincoln received the first electronic transmission of information while on the ground (Amos et al. , 2007).

In 1863, the Union forces established the Bureau of Military Intelligence. The Bureau geared up assessment of the Confederate Army’s strength and activities of penetration of the Confederacy’s War and Navy Departments. The Bureau of Military Intelligence was disestablished in the last part of the war. A derivative of its termination was the Secret Service that was ascertained in 1865 to fight counterfeiting. Intelligence activities were dedicated to supporting military operations before 1880s. The Office of Naval Intelligence, a stable intelligence organization, was formed in March 1882 in the Department of the Navy.

Its obligation was to gather intelligence on alien navies during peacetime and wartime. The US Army created Military Intelligence Division to gather foreign and conjugal military information for the War Department and the Army (Amos et al. , 2007). President Theodore Roosevelt aggressively used intelligence for foreign policy purposes. He exploited intelligence operatives’ information to egg on a revolution in Panama to validate seizing the Panama Canal. In 1907, the President used intelligence to prove to the Japanese military build-up who had launched the Great White Fleet.

The twentieth century was manifested as a development of domestic intelligence potentiality. The predecessor of the FBI, The Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation, was created in 1908 because of unease that Secret Service agents were detecting on affiliates of Congress. The Bureau grew from 34 to 300 agents by 1916. Its center of attention was on banking issues, internal security, Mexican boundary smuggling activities, neutrality infringement in the Mexican uprising and Central American instability. The Bureau was concerned with activities of German and British nationals on US borders following the break out of war in Europe.

Findings indicate that British intelligence brought the United States into World War I. The German intelligence prevented U. S. industry and the financial sector from backing up Great Britain. Consequently, British intelligence gave President Wilson a decryption of German political and naval traffic. This revealed to American intelligence a German effort to allure the Mexican administration into amalgamation with the Germany in opposition to the United States in come back for Texas, Arizona and New Mexico. The Zimmerman Telegram, led to President Wilson pronouncing war on Germany.

The first U. S. indication of intelligence agency was created within the Army in June 1917. At last the agency was moved to the State Department in 1919. The Black Chamber, intelligence agency, paid attention to political rather than military communications. In 1921, the Black Chamber decrypted Japanese diplomatic transfer. Hoover took back the agency to a military point of reference under the Army Signal Corps. Supplementary intelligence bodies existed after the end of WWI but their assets were cut. The Justice Department’s Bureau of Investigation expanded its mission and personnel.

In 1924, J. Edgar Hoover became the director of the current Federal Bureau of Investigation. The FBI’s charter was enlarged in the existence of World War II. The FBI was accused of exploring espionage, counterespionage, sabotage and violations of the nonaligned status laws (Andrew, 1996). An Interdepartmental Intelligence Coordinating Committee was formed but it did not go far. Conclusion Research shows that the earliest wartime experience damage the reputation of much of the philosophy that underpinned the Defense Transformation effort. Current leaders should learn from this experience and change their thinking about war (Andrew, 1996).


Amos et al. (2007). The U. S. Army/Marine Corps counterinsurgency field manual: U. S. Army field manual no. 3-24: Marine Corps warfighting publication no. 3-33. 5. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Andrew, C. (1996). For the President’s Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush. New York: HarperPerennial. Johnson, L. (2007). Strategic Intelligence. London: Greenwood Publishing Group. Worley, D. (2006). Shaping U. S. military forces: revolution or relevance in a post-Cold War world. London: Greenwood Publishing Group.