SCIENTIFIC METHOD 5
Thelogical and rational process by which scientists validateobservations while minimizing observation bias is called thescientific method (Fonseca, 2014). The method is not a formula, but aseries of sequential steps used by scientists to create explainableresults that augment knowledge base. The scientific method comprisesof three fundamental elements. First, a proposition which is astatement that is to be tested or proven. The statement is consideredtrue for investigation purpose. The second is a theory which refersto the generalized principles that are drawn from the truth thatclarifies annotations. Hypothesis forms the last fundamental element,and it describes the statement that defines what the expected resultswill be. The generated hypothesis should be testable and be able tobe rejected or accepted (Fonseca, 2014).
Thescientific method employs the following steps in its process. Thefirst phase involves making an observation. This step involvesgathering and assimilating information about a phenomenon. Second,the definition of the problem follows. This phase involves askingrelevant and testable questions concerning the selected observation.Formulation of hypothesis makes the third step. This step involvescreating a scientific explanation for the observation. The hypothesisshould be testable and falsifiable. Fourth, conduction of theexperiment takes place. This step stands to test the hypothesis.Lastly is the derivation of theory from the experiment outcome thatgives an explanation for the observation and suggests the possibilityof future observations (Mak et al., 2009).
Theuse of scientific method is important as it allows scientists to usea systematic process to discover and circulate information (Fonseca,2014). The advantage drawn from this process is that it allows theexperiment to be carried out in different places and under differentconditions. If similar results are obtained, then the facts of thetheory are made stronger.
Whendeciding the idea for a research study, the following steps areapplicable. First, select a subject that is of interest. Ensure thatthe subject area fits the necessities of the assignment or grant.Second, study existing research and gather necessary informationabout the topic. At this point, develop an expert grasp of whatalready exists about the topic. It is important to focus on academicand scholarly information to ascertain that the information isunbiased, comprehensive and accurate. Third, analyze the existingliterature from the materials collected. Identifying unansweredquestions and gaps from these texts provide interesting areas toinvestigate. Fourth, generate more questions that would beinteresting to explore further. Lastly, look for clues from theexisting literature to what the results of the study would be. Theseclues might form the basis of the research (Fonseca, 2014).
Generatinga testable topic requires formulating a hypothesis with both thedependent and one or more independent variables. The dependentvariable refers to what is affected while the independent variable iswhat causes the effects. The hypothesis should be specific such thatit makes predictions measurable hence providing proof of acorrelation between variables.
Radich(2009) identifies fabrication of information as one of the fatalpitfalls for poorly done research studies. Fabrication may arise froma poor literature review of mere ignorance. Fabrication denies peoplethe opportunity to get correct information from research work. Poorlydone studies also provide incorrect statistics which in turn givefalsified positives. Radich (2009) explains that in most cases, thesestatistical errors arise from intentional acts by some researchers.These actions provide falsified positives to the users of the studyresults. The consequences from these pitfalls include providing falseand biased information which defies the code of ethics on providinggenuine and unbiased research work. The ethics surrounding anyresearch work are essential to adhere to as study results affect thesociety as a whole.
Fonseca,M. (2014). in Brief. JournalOf Biological Education,49(1),113-114.
Mak,D., Mak, A., & Mak, A. (2009). Solvingeveryday problems with the scientific method.Singapore: World Scientific Pub. Co.
Radich,J. (2009). The promise and pitfalls of gene expression studies. BestPractice & Research Clinical Haematology,22(2),165-167.