Rosa Luxemburg and Benito Mussolini essay

Rosa Luxemburg was a German social thinker and revolutionary who denounced Germany’s participation in World War I mainly due to its devastating consequences to the working class, which she has avidly supported most of her life. In general, her objections to her country’s participation are depicted in her work, “The War and the Workers,” which was published in 1916. Basically, as shown in her work, Luxemburg denounced Germany’s participation in First World Way mainly because it somehow exploited the German proletariat.

In general, Luxemburg particularly holds the German working class in high regard. In her work, possibly her best description of them was “by means of countless sacrifices and tireless attention to detail, they have built the strongest organization, the one most worthy of emulation; they created the biggest press, called the most effective means of education and enlightenment into being, gathered the most powerful masses of voters and attained the greatest number of parliamentary mandates.

” In other words, she views the working class as the main driving force of the economy. (Luxemburg, 1916) And since she believes in the power of the German proletariat, she is convinced that the war is another decision made by the bourgeois society, which has opposed the working class at almost every front In other words, Luxemburg saw the world war as a form of exploitation and destruction of the working class as it would lead to loss of numerous civilian lives, property, and various sources of economic revenues such as fields and factories, among others.

She basically saw the Germany’s participation in the war as a form of imperialism and militarism because the upper class would then dictate the way of life of those in the lower classes, particularly the working class. Most of all, she warned that the war would only lead to regression in society as the working class, along with the sources of economic gains, would be greatly affected. To some extent, Luxemburg was right in her claims.

Evidently, after the war, the millions of lives were lost, and a large portion of that number may have been members of the working class as they had little to no protection as compared to their counterparts in the higher class. The aftermath of the war also led to the fall of the German empire, as it was one of the countries that were defeated. However, to a certain extent, she was mistaken in her predictions mainly because there was a Second World War, which Germany itself started.

Meaning to say, although she predicted that the First World War would have negative effects on Germany, she was wrong when she claimed that it would be the last one and that it would teach the Germans the lessons in social progress. However, despite her opposition to Germany’s disastrous yet popular policies, she cannot be considered a traitor because she was simply fighting for the welfare of the majority of the people who comprise her country. Although she called for revolutions against bourgeois imperialism, her ultimate goal was still for the improvement and economic progress of Germany.

After all, Germany’s participation in World War I had more losses than gains and in effect, Luxemburg was right in opposing it. In short, unlike other German leaders at that time, Luxemburg was concerned for the welfare of other people and not herself, which is why she can be called an overly-idealistic social figure and not necessarily a traitor. Mussolini Questions 1. Identify some of the moral benefits that war brings to society according to… According to Benito Mussolini’s Social and Political Doctrine of Fascism, the moral benefits that war brings to society include the nobility and the large amount of human energy that it exerts.

Basically, for Mussolini, war is a venue for one to show bravery and courage in the fact of conflict. In addition, according to his doctrine no other trial enables one to fight for his or her country and tests his or her character, strength, and skills than war. 2. Explain why Mussolini had such contempt for democratic politics, socialism and democracy in his theory of Fascism. Although Mussoloni had a variety of reasons for his contempt for democratic politics, socialism, and democracy, his main reason was that these ideologies were the main cause of class conflict, which, ultimately leads to chaos.

Class conflict mainly occurs between two members of different classes, particularly the lower classes or working class and the upper classes or elite bourgeois. Basically, according to Mussolini, since every individual has his or her own values and ideas, there will be times when these oppose each other. For example, jealousy can arouse within members of the working class, who he believes have been exploited by capitalists and communists alike. 3. What is the role of the State and State authority in Mussolini’s Fascism?

In Mussolini’s Facism, the role of the State and State authority is mainly to eliminate any forms of individualism and to oversee the welfare of the nation through action. Basically, fascism dictates that groups and individuals would only cause conflict in interests and values which is why they must be ceased. Furthermore, it is role of the State and State authority alone to ensure progress, order, and peace of the nation not as groups of people but as a single unified group that share and believes in a common goal.

Name three reasons why some people might be attracted to an ideology glorifying war, condemning democracy, and celebrating authoritarian leadership. One reason why people might be attracted to an ideology that glorifies war, condemns democracy, and celebrate authoritarian leadership is the relative peace and order that it brings. Basically, fascism eliminates class conflict and in effect, removes certain issues and struggles between individuals. Another reason could be the progress that a State-controlled society can brings since only a few individuals will be overseeing the affairs of the country.

Finally, another reason is the power that may bring to a chosen few. Fascism provides power only to a select number of people and by nature, those people will enjoy the power of controlling the entire welfare of the nation.


Luxemburg, R. (1916). The War and the Workers. The Junius Pamphlet. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://h-net. org/~german/gtext/kaiserreich/lux. html. Mussolini, B. (1932). Doctrine of Fascism. The History Guide Lectures on Twentieth Century Europe. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from http://www. historyguide. org/europe/duce. html.