Reading Response essay



Q1:Theoretical approaches to security

Securityis an important factor in the livelihood of a human being. Withoutsecurity, people tend to live with fear. Every country has anobligation to ensure policies are put in place to ensure the securityof its citizens. There are various theoretical frameworks that can beemployed in formulating foreign policies to curb insecurity. TheGlobal Security theory which aims to enlarge the security agenda morethan the military and politico-military matters so that it caninclude environmental protection, human rights, social developmentand economic prosperity are is the best approach by which thegovernment can make use of in formulating foreign and defensepolicies. This theory has the innate objective to replace conflict,coercion and war with bargaining, cooperation, and peaceful change.With a foreign policy that embraces cooperation and peaceful change,the country can easily avoid any unnecessary strife with itsneighbors and instead cooperate with them to resolve anycross-boundary issues. For example, with the nation`s oil reservesnearly depleted, the country will depend largely on imported oil inthe near future (&quotATough-Oil World: Why High Gas Prices Are Here to Stay&quot, 2016).With a cooperative interaction with other nations, the country cansource oil at minimizes prices, which can, in turn, lower the oilprices within the country. The exploitation of the currently scarcenatural resources in the whole world can also be effectively managedthrough negotiations and agreements. Creating an international policythat encourages negotiations can also help in avoiding unnecessarywar and contention between the nationalities. In the case of anyinternational strife, the countries can always negotiate for peace.

Q2:Beyond our differences documentary

Accordingto the documentary, Beyond Our Differences, the world has become toomuch concerned with the negative contemporary religion aspects, mostcommonly in the Western tradition than on the positive aspects. Thismessage that was essentially proclaimed by the film is true. However,the reason is as clear as the truth. Recently, there have been toomany negative aspects of religion that warrant the perspective withwhich it is viewed. Religious wars and injustices have beenresponsible for the loss of numerous innocent lives misdirectedreligious practices by the religious leaders have also caused serioussocial problems in the entire world (Gilbert, 2015). The positiveaspects of religion like the maintenance of order and ethicalbehavior is largely countered by the frequent atrocities that areperformed in the name of religion. Considering the devastatingeffects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks on America, and many other warssparked by religious differences, it is rightful for the world to bemore concerned about the negative effects of religion. What makesreligious issues more shocking is that even the individuals who holda similar belief in God can have contentions among themselves. Anexample is a contention between the Catholics and the Protestants,which has led to the death of many.

Q3:Globalization according to Keohane and Nye

Globalization,as defined by Keohane and Nye, is a state of the world which involvesnetworks of interdependence at distances that are multi-continentalin distances and connected through the flow of capital and goods,people, and force, information and ideas, and environmentally andbiologically relevant substances. This description of globalizationby Keohane and Nye is the most appropriate since it gives anelaborate description and expanse of the term. The description by thetwo scholars does not restrict itself to the economic expansion ofthe nations like other concepts of globalization (Keohane and Nye,2001). Contrarily, it focuses on the development of an interlinkedsociety in which every individual has the liberty to be autonomous.Establishing a democratic economy can help in promoting regional andinternational economic improvement. This can mark the end of povertyto the weaker nations. The interconnectedness of the regions as usedby Keohane and Nye in defining globalization may however also betaken to imply terrorist activities like the one popularly termed as9/11 (Keohane and Nye, 2001). However, the flow of “biologicallyand environmentally relevant substances&quot easily negates thatnotion. This is because the flow of nuclear weapons or any explosiveweapons is not both biologically or environmentally relevant. Theyare agents of destruction to both biology and the environment.

Q4:The End of Poverty

Povertyis a major concern across the world, and every nation strives tominimize it if not ending it. As trade continues to become moreregional and less global, the economies of every nation may becomebetter improved. The attainment of globalization may as well mark thebeginning of interesting life for the destitute and poor in thesociety. In every movie or film, there are various lessons and skillsone can gain. The intentions of such artistic work are to teach andimpart skills. After watching the film I gained a betterunderstanding of the concept. The process of globalization isportrayed as a move to interlink the world economies through anetwork of shared responsibilities and activities (Gilbert, 2016). Inthis process, the poor population of a nation becomes theresponsibility of another wealthier nation. This can, in turn, leadto the elimination of poverty. However, this concept can be strictlyopposed by the proponents of unfettered globalization, claiming thatthe interference of governments on the process of globalization maybe a move to oppress other nations and the citizens. They may opposeit as the actual means to cause the end of globalization.

Myknowledge and understanding of the concept were positively expandedby the film. This is because it convinced me of the hope that povertycan finally come to an end through the process of globalization. Asnations learn to share resources through international relations,they will develop strong economic ties, which will open more avenuesfor trade and interactions. As a result, countries may engage intechnology transfer and other technological initiatives that willensure that wealthier countries assist the poorer nations to riseeconomically (Gilbert,2016).

Q5:InWhose Interest

Theshort documentary, “In Whose Interest” questions whose interestsparked the various U.S. interventions on international conflicts.Considering itself as the major worldwide purveyor of peace anddemocracy, the U.S. has intervened in almost every war that hasexisted between nations. However, the documentary searches theinterconnectedness of the self-promoted image with their accrualpolicies and military engagement. It also questions whether war is agood means of achieving peace. It is a documentary that examines theconflicts that have occurred in the last half century and the rolethat the United States played in all of them. According to thefilm, the involvement of the US in international conflicts has beencounter to the notion of democracy. Examining Guatemala, the filmshows how the US financial and military support led to the removal ofthe president of that country in 1954, the end of a democraticrevolution, and the death of many citizens. Their reason forinvolvement was to preserve their economic interest in the largestcorporation in the country, the United Fruit, which had an extensionto the United States. Many other interventions also tend to revealthat the United States had a different motive other than just torestore peace in the war-stricken region.

Actingin our national interest in the affairs of other nations is againstthe broader human interest and in our interest. Our national interestin a country can be the economic gain we achieve from that country.In case, that country goes into war, and we choose to act in theinterest of our national interest to keep the benefits from thatcountry coming, we may end up being biased and hinder the attainmentof democracy in that war-stricken nation. We may end up favoring theside that promises to maintain our interest in the country, notconsidering whether that side is the right or the wrong party. Incontrast, the broader human interest is to restore peace and at thesame time promote democracy and justice.


ATough-Oil World: Why High Gas Prices Are Here to Stay.(2016). CommonDreams.Retrieved 14 May 2016, from

Gilbert,G. (2016). Buildinga Democratic Economy: Local Tools in the Struggle AgainstNeoliberalism.Truthout.Retrieved 14 May 2016, from

Keohane,R. O. &amp Nye S. J. (2001). Powerand Interdependence. 3rd edition.New York: Addison Wesley Longman.