Psychopharmacology Test essay







Thesniffer is stimulated, disinhibited, dizziness, euphoria accompaniedby hallucination, slurred speech, loss of self-control andlight-headed (Abadinsky H. &amp Abadinsky H. 2008).


Theadolescents are the main users of inhalants. This is because theinhalants are often the first psychoactive drugs to be used by theNative American youths. Research studies have shown that the boys aremore likely to use the inhalants than females.


Long-termuse of aerosols and detergents (fluid) may result in problemsassociated with the brain, kidneys and liver. The short-term use ofsuch drugs can effectively be managed if the user stops the inhalantabuse. The heavy use of the inhalants can cause perception andcoordination impairment and unconsciousness.


Inthe US, the populations that are affected by pathological gamblingare the African American, Latin American and Native Americanadolescents, people with substance use disorders, the minorities andthe elderly. This is because each of these groups has its uniquesocial, biological or psychological features that make themvulnerable.


Allforms of addiction have been found to have a feature in common. Thepeople addicted to any form of addiction are usually in denial, theydon’t acknowledge their problems.


Thereis increase in over-use their electronic devices e.g. computers andcell phones. The over-use of these gadgets is considered an addictionsince the users cannot control their behaviors which are associatedwith the use of these electronics, and hence they end up ignoringtheir negative effects.


TheAthletic community is the common profession with eating disorders.Unlike the rest of the populations, there is a substantial amount ofevidence to show that the competitive athletes are in greater risksof developing eating disorders in certain sports.


Thereare several types of gamblers. They include, Social gamblers- thosewho gamble for entertainment and majority of gamblers fall in thiscategory. Compulsive gamblers are those that have uncontrollablepreoccupation and urge to gamble and the other type is theprofessional gambler who makes their living through gambling. Theybet in a controlled manner.


Eatingdisorders generally begin in the mid-late adolescence. Eatingdisorders are believed to be more common in females but as per the2007 research conducted by CDC, the disorder can affect anybody.Athletes have higher risk of developing eating disorder due to normsand expectations of the athletic community they want to achieve.


Sexualaddiction exists and the indicators include: abusiveness, secrecy,painfulness and emptiness and they are subjective as they areconsidered moralistic perspective toward sexuality (Donovan D. M. &ampMarlatt G. A. (008).


Huffingis the act of intentionally inhaling fumes in order to attain aeuphoric effect or excitement.

Sprayingis the use of paints and other chemicals such as gasoline which maybe consumed with food or alone.

Baggingis a form of drug abuse akin to huffing.


Thephysical effects of use of steroids i.e. in the case of performanceenhancement drugs includes infertility, development of breasts,change in voice, reduced sperm count in male as well as increased sexdrive, heart attack, organ tumors among others. On the other hand,mental effects include explosive aggressive behavior, manic behavior,anxiety, muscle pains, headaches etc.


AbadinskyH. &amp Abadinsky H. (2008).&nbspDruguse and abuse: A comprehensive introduction.Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.

DonovanD. M. &amp Marlatt G. A. (2008).&nbspAssessmentof addictive behaviors.New York: Guilford.