Prejudice and discrimination in the modern era are expressed in many ways that are more amorphous and indirect than the traditional forms. In the United States, the presence of the African-American underclass is an example of the contemporary forms of discrimination. The effects of the discrimination and the racial inequality of the past can be shown presently by the low level of African-American business ownership in the States today. Black-owned businesses were detained in less affluent market.
Furthermore, there was lack of development available for the Blacks in the past which therefore limits there ability for success in the field presently. Structural assimilation has two phases; primary and secondary structural assimilation. Primary structural assimilation is the integration in more intimate relationship such as marriages and friendships. Secondary structural assimilation is the integration in public areas, like the job market, political institutions and centers for education. Residential Outline.
Four decades after the Jim Crow segregation residential segregation between the Blacks and the different racial monitories in America has advanced slowly. The whites and the Black continued to live separately and this segregation is a norm. Today, residential segregation differs around the nation; these racial minorities continue to live in residentially isolated places like the industrial cities in Northeast and Midwest and in the South.. The patterns of racial discrimination and residential segregation are reinforced by practices such as racial steering by the realtors.
In racial steering, these realtors guide clients to a same-race housing areas, therefore highlighting segregation in the urban areas. As for the other minorities, the percentage of home ownership compared to the 71% hone ownership by the Whites is 48% for Mexicans (2/3 whites) and 59% Cubans. In 1900, the Blacks don’t have less residential segregation than it is today. In 1990, Blacks still works on White plantations as tenants, therefore living in close proximity with them. Some of its nationwide trends is the reduced segregation in the North by 2.
3% in 1980’s and required an estimated 60 years to reach a moderate range. This trend on the other hand is 10 point lower in South while those in Cleveland, in New York and in Chicago are above 80. As for the other racial minorities like the Japanese and the Koreans or the Asians in general, it was in the year 1905 till 1945 that California Legislature proposed bills and laws that were anti-Japanese, wherein they were segregated from the rest of the populace and even resorted to the confiscation of their properties.
In 1907 to be precise, an Asian school was proposed to be established in San Francisco but was opposed by the Japanese government itself. This disagreement resulted into what came to be known as the Gentlemen’s Agreement, which revoked school segregation in exchange for the voluntary restriction on immigration commenced forth by the Japanese government. One of the notorious examples of racial assimilation against the Asians is the 1924 Act which bans Asian from immigrating to the United States.
Moreover, the HOLC 1933 and the FHA 1937 stirred economic backlash for these Asians and the Blacks in America. Private banks and other mortgages stopped cash flows in several key cities and areas where the Blacks live; this prevention made home improvement impossible, leading to disrepair, deterioration, vacancy and abandonment, lastly, the Blacks were denied appreciating their homes values which is the major reason for their middle class status up to this moment.
In Atlanta in 1989, loan rejection for whites is 11% while those for the Blacks are 24%. School Integration. During the times of the Brown segregation in 1954, majority of the African American and other racial minorities lived in areas where there is a segregated school system. Jim Crow schools, that advocated for lessening the gap of segregation were unfunded and do not receive enough government support, rendering it with lacking facilities, less and unqualified teachers and falling short for physical facilities.
Due to the pressure of the federal government and other social groups to cut the wide racial educational segregation, it was in 1950 that the highest Black percentage which soared to 44% attended white majority schools. From that time on, this trend dropped to as low as 33% in 1998. By the time span from 1991 and 2002, all over the country, it is clear that African-Americans and other racial minorities are less likely to attend white majority schools. Behind this problem of school segregation is primarily the residential segregation present.
For example, it is more challenging to even out racial discrimination in huge metropolis such as Washington, DC where there is black inner city, a fairly distributed Hispanics and Asian population and surrounded by the a ring of white suburbs. Recent literatures reveal that integration in schools id directly related to higher and improving test scores, hence, urban schools are advocating educational segregation. Political Power. The number of African American officials that were elected in different levels of government and thus held power in certain laws, increased from zero to more than 9000 in 2001.
The effects of this assimilation process are poor school and inferior services especially in health care, which therefore placed the education performance of the Blacks, is inferior compared to majority of the Whites. Socially, the language of the Blacks, the Ebonics has been identified as one of the major reasons for job discrimination, labeling it as disrespectful and undependable. It was also evident that the mortgage black out prevented socioeconomic mobility.