PreimplantationGenetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a method applied on embryos formed usingin vitro fertilization for the screening of genetic diseases beforeimplantation (Lawrence, 2009). Due to initial examination of thegerms, the parents are presented with information on the healthcondition of the embryos and might, therefore, determine thefertilized cells that should be implanted. This technique might beuseful in preventing termination of pregnancies due to developmentalabnormalities. Although the method has some clinical benefits, dozensof ethical concerns question its credibility.
Itis right for couples with the risk of transferring a genetic diseaseto use PGD so as to prevent complications in their baby. PGD is onlyessential in the deterrence of stillbirths or births that may lead tothe prolonged suffering of the born child. In cases of creating amatched sibling for bone marrow donation, it is not right to use thetechnique as a solution to the matter. Various ethical trepidationsarise from such a practice. One of the concerns is the future of thedonor. After accomplishing the mission of bone marrow donation, wherewill the child be taken? This is perceived as an act of exploitationto the donor child where some are used as “givers” for theirentire life (Lawrence, 2009).
Thereare risks of mortality and morbidity on the child used to donate bonemarrow stem cells. The donation process predisposes the donor childto dangers that result from the usage of anesthesia, tissue injury,or complications resulting from nerve injury. There could also bepost-donation risks of death due to respiratory arrest, cardiacarrest, sickle cell predicament, stroke and pulmonary emboli. Therisks are however avoidable (Pennings et al., 2002).
Thechoice of sex is unethical. The act of choosing the sex of a childmakes gender a determinative reason of valuing one individual overthe other which is totally irrelevant (Lawrence, 2009). Such apractice is a form of gender discrimination. Moreover, a large groupof parents may prefer having children of a particular sex leading toa lack of gender balance within a population.
Lawrence,N. (2009). The Technological Citizen » Ethical Issues with Prenataland by Professor Lawrence Nelson.Retrieved May 24, 2016, fromhttp://thetechnologicalcitizen.com/?p=1022
Pennings,G., Schots, R., & Liebaers, I. (2002). Ethical considerations onpreimplantation genetic diagnosis for HLA typing to match a futurechild as a donor of haematopoietic stem cells to a sibling. HumanReproduction,17(3),534-538. doi:10.1093/humrep/17.3.534