Polycysticovary syndrome is an endocrine system disorder that affects women whoare within the reproductive age. Women who have this syndrome usuallyhave ovaries that are quite enlarged and have fluid collectionsinside them (Cussons et al., 2008). These fluid collections are knownas follicles and they are normally visible during ultrasound tests.Some of the manifestations of the syndrome include the excess growthof hair, obesity, acne and prolonged menstrual periods among womenwho have the syndrome. In some cases, situations where there isabsent or infrequent menstruation among women who are still in theiradolescence, could be an indication of the problem.
Endocrinedysfunction inherent of PCOS is normally associated with a number ofendocrine dysfunction. One of the most common endocrine problems thatare associated with the syndrome is the disruption of the pulsefrequency of GnRH. As a result, the pulse becomes quite rapid,therefore, influencing a higher release of the luteinizing hormoneover the release of the follicle stimulating hormone by the pituitarygland (Cussons et al, 2008). The resultant effect is that there areelevated levels of the luteinizing hormone as compared to the FSH.This situation leads to the stimulation of the ovarian cells whichend up producing androgens. The deficient amount of FSH in the bodyleads to the impairment of the follicular maturation as well as therelease of luteal progesterone. All these, lead to ovulatorydysfunction and hyperandrogenism.
Anothercondition that is observed in women with PCOS is limitation in termsof endogenous progesterone secretions. This is brought about by thesituation of heightened levels of anovulatory cycles. Another aspectthat leads to this situation is the fact that there is usually areduction of the sensitivity in the hypothalamus towards the releaseof progesterone. As a result, the situation becomes quite cyclic, inthat, a case of a pre-existing condition of PCOS leads to a worsecondition of PCOS.
Endocrinedysfunction has a great correlation to body weight and metabolicdysfunction. For instance, PCOS are also associated with the lack ofproper response of the body towards insulin, which is an endocrinesecretion. They are also associated with the inhibited secretion ofinsulin. Problems associated with insulin in the body directly leadto conditions linked to high cases of weight gain and obesity in theextreme circumstances. The inability of the body to digest and burndown glucose properly plays a role in influencing weight gain andobesity. This could be as a result of a case of insulin resistancewhere the cells responsible for respiration could be less receptiveto the insulin which is released so as to control and regulate theprocess of conversion of glucagon to glucose. The other problem thatcould cause the problem of weight-gain could be the increase ofinsulin tolerance among the women with this condition (Cussons,2008). As a result, such women could have high case of glucosedeposition in their bodies. Therefore, they end up gaining weight.Some metabolic problems of people with such a syndrome includehypertension as well as impaired glucose metabolism. Hypertension isbrought about by the increased weight that is typical with thecondition. It leads to the constriction of blood vessels and theincreased incapability of the heart to pump blood to other parts ofthe body easily. Impaired glucose metabolism is brought about theinsensitivity of the body to insulin. This could be due to increasedtolerance of the body to glucose.
PCOSmay be treated by different methods. One of the methods includes themodification of the lifestyles that people choose. For instance,girls and women who have increased weight could incorporate exerciseand better diets in their lifestyles. Improved exercise and betterdiet would enable them lose weight in the long run. They need toavoid diets that are full of sugar as well as foods that are fatty(Cussons et al., 2008). Decreased weight levels are quite helpfulsince they help to reduce the resistance to insulin, an endocrinesecretion, a factor that is usually one of the manifestations of thePCOS. In the long-run, different metabolic problems that wereassociated with the problem reduce and the body begins to regainnormal function. This strategy is helpful since it is quite cheaperand sustainable. Weight loss strategies are, especially necessary forthose women and girls who have an abdominal phenotype that have ahigh chance of having an excessive fat deposit on the abdominalportions of their bodies (Conway et al., 2014).
Anothertreatment strategy that clinicians could apply is that of combinedhormonal agents. It involves the use of drugs that contain bothprogestin and estrogen. The continued application of the therapyenables the hormones to improve the situation of acne, hirsutism andproblems in menstruation (Cussons, 2008). The estrogen componentfound in the pill helps to suppress the release of the LH and enhancethe release of the hepatic SHBG. In the long run, there is theattainment in balance between the levels of the LH and FSH in thebody, thereby leading to sustained body processes. The progestinplays a huge role in the protection of the endometrial from theadverse effects of estrogen. This treatment method is less costly andhelps to ensure that high levels of effectiveness are achieved.Another hormonal agent that could be incorporated in the treatmentplan is insulin sensitizer (Conway et al., 2014). This helps totargets both problems associate with reproductive issues and cardiometabolic-disorders. It helps to make the peripheral tissues and theliver to be highly sensitive to insulin. It also helps to inducesteroidogenesis of the ovary into making sections that will make thebody highly sensitive to insulin. The resultant effect is that thenegative manifestations of the PCOS is reduced extensively.
Conway,G., Dewailly, D., Kandarakis, E.D., Morreale, H.E., Franks, S.,Gambineri, A., Kelestimur, F., Macut, D., Micic, D., Pasquali, R.,Pfeifer, M., Pignatelli, D., Pugeat, M. and Yildiz, B.O. (2014). Thepolycystic ovary syndrome: a position statement from the EuropeanSociety of Endocrinology. EuropeanJournal of Endocrinology.171, P12–P13
Cussons,A. J., Watts, G.F., Burke, V., Shaw, J.E., Zimmet, P.Z. and Stuckey,B.G. (2008). Cardiometabolic risk in polycystic ovary syndrome: Acomparison of different approaches to defining the metabolicsyndrome. HumanReprodroduction Journal.23(10):2352-2358