is an area of linguistics, which covers the systemic organization ofsounds in different languages. It is the sound system of a particularlanguage and forms the basis in which words of the language areheard, or spoken (Curzan & Adams, 2014). is establishedon the belief that native speakers unconsciously retain the soundstructure of a particular language, and is more concerned with thesounds that the development process of the sounds.
ADescription of the Aspects of English that could interferewith Communication for Different Language Groups
Differentaspects of English phonology may interfere with communicationprocesses for various language groups. These elements includephonemes, pitch, and stress. Phonemes are the most basic units ofsound that have effects on the meaning of the pronounced word. Theygive a distinction between two words. In the English language, thereis no one-to-one correspondence between sounds and letter (Bernthal,Bankson & Flipsen, 2012). The English language is made up oftwenty-six letter and forty-four sounds, which is different fromother languages. This, therefore, creates a challenge incommunication, particularly when one is a first-time learner. A goodexample of this is the pronunciation of the words binand pinwhere sounds band pare phonemes in English. Some students of the language find it hardto differentiate the two sounds in words such as those used in theexample. Another aspect is pitch, which defines the meaning of aword, or string of words. Pitch can be created in phrases through theapplication of punctuation marks. The use of pitch is, however, achallenge to learners of the language where the wrong intonationcould completely change the meaning of a phrase. Stress is also aphonological aspect that challenges English learners. Stress can beplaced on different syllables of a word to create different meaningsfrom the same word. Putting stress on the first syllable of the word“conflict”, for example, makes it a noun while applying thestress on the second syllable makes it a verb.
SpeechSound Patterns and Strategies that help students avoid PrimaryLanguage Interference
Someproblematic phonemes may affect pronunciation and comprehension ofEnglish learners by making them produce different sound patterns. Thephonemes that should be considered during practice include digraphs,diphthongs, and schwa sounds. The words for practice are, therefore,listed under these phonemes.
Digraphs: these are any two letters which form a single sound. They include /ph/ as in graph and /ea/ as in peach. Practicing on the pronunciation of digraphs helps students avoid mistake such as the pronunciation of tree instead of three.
Diphthongs: this is where two vowels are combined to develop a sound that slides from one to the other, for example, /oy/ in toy and /ai/ in fail. Practicing the pronunciation of standard English diphthongs such as /ai/, /oi/, and /aw/ will be beneficial to students.
Schwa sound: this refers to the sound made by every vowel in an English word. It is usually common for learners to substitute more familiar vowel sounds into English words thus, leading to loss of comprehension by the listener. Students should practice on /a/ as in across, /e/ as in the, /i/ as in stencil, /o/ as in onion, and /u/ as in cut.
StudentPhonological Skills that help with Fluent Reading and Writing
Astudent can attain proficiency in reading and writing words, phrases,and sentences in the English language. One better way of properlearning is by continuous practice in reading and writing (Bernthalet al., 2012). Other skills that can be used include:
Detection of rhymes and alliteration in words or sentences.
Identification of rhymes or words that begin or end with similar sounds.
Segmentation of words into minute units, for example, sounds and syllables and practicing on them.
Joining sounds to form words.
Understanding the different sounds in words and the symbols that represent the sounds.
Experimenting with different sounds.
Strategiesthat could be used to determine English learners` hindrances andneeds associated with
Oneway of determining the obstacles and needs of an English student isthrough testing their pronunciation ability. The instructor candevelop different words containing different phonemes and make thestudent pronounce the phrase. The assessment then gives theinstructor a clue of words that the student finds hard to pronounce.
Anotherway is by initiating a conversation with the learners and noting thepronunciation errors that they make. In a large setting, passages canbe used to assess the students. This is essential in observing howthe students develop sentences.
Bernthal,J. E., Bankson, N. W., & Flipsen, P. (2012). Articulationand phonological disorders: Speech sound disorders in children.Pearson Higher Ed.
Curzan,A., & Adams, M. P. (2014). HowEnglish works: A linguistic introduction.Pearson Higher Ed.