The bestdiagnosis for Jack is “paranoid personality disorder andschizotypal personality disorder”. Ferri (2015) states thatParanoid Personality Disorder (PDP) is caused by the interplaybetween several factors i.e. genes, neurological vulnerability, andbiological factors. Schizotypal personality disorder is also causedby the interplay of the above factors. In both personality disorders,an individual have a high risk of developing the condition if one oftheir family members has a psychotic disorder such as schizophreniajack’s mother was diagnosed with schizophrenia thus making Jacksusceptible of developing the two disorders. The paranoid disorder ischaracterized by the lack of trust, suspicion or grandiose. Jack didnot trust the TV commercials and thought they referred specificallyto him and believed in his own psychic powers. He did not trustwhatever was on the TV. Another differential diagnosis is that peoplesuffering from PPD are social and like spending time with others, atrait that Jack displayed while in his adolescent stage. He isunemotional, a sign of PPD. Unlike other personality disorders,people with PPD believe to have supernatural powers or politicalpowers as in the case of Jack, who thought that he make a wish inorder to get anything they wanted (Schultz, J. M., & Videbeck, S.L. 2009).
Patients withschizophrenia personality disorder are superstitious, claim to havepowers and have odd behaviors as exhibited by Jack. The patients withthe disorder usually have vivid imaginary relationships and childlikefantasies. Jack thought that all the neighboring girls wanted to havesex with him which was not the case. Like in the case of Jack,patients suffering from schizophrenia may admit experiencingperpetual illusions. Their relationships start to weaken like that ofJack (Sadock, Kaplan, & Sadock, 2007, p.797).
The most appropriate diagnosis for Sara is “dependent personalitydisorder and cocaine addiction.” Dependent personality disorder(DPD) is exhibited in an individual’s life in their early adulthoodstage. DPD is characterized by clinging behavior where the patientsubmits to another. The specific cause of DPD is unclear, but itresults from the interplay of various factors childhood trauma,social isolation, psychosexual development, prohibition ofindependent activity and hostile dependency. The disorder is known torun in families displaying inheritance from parents. Sara hasexperienced trauma while she was a child after abandonment by herparents who felt financially unable to care for her. Individuals withDPD do not like to be alone and thus seek out their mates who theycan depend on. Sara became social in her adolescent stage with heradopted family and even became social at school (Sadock, Kaplan, &Sadock, 2007, p.797).
The relationshipthat the patient engages in is always distorted since their needsseem to be attached to the other. The relationship is usuallylong-term with one person who the patient depends on. The patientsare always submissive and will act and behave in the way that pleasesthose who they depend on. Depressive disorder is a differentialdiagnosis for DPD it is associated with lack of desire to engage ininitially pleasurable activities and high chances of substance abuse.As in the case of Sara, individuals suffering from dependentpersonality disorder tolerate drugs abuse or are alcoholics to avoiddisrupting the sense of attachment to the person they depend on (PuriB., Hall A. & Roger H. 2013).
FERRI, F. F. (2015). Ferri`s Clinical Advisor 2016.Elsevier Health Sciences, p.926
Hales, R. E., Yudofsky, S. C., Gabbard, G. O., & AmericanPsychiatric Publishing. (2011). Essentials of psychiatry.Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Pub.
Puri B., Hall A. & Roger H. (2013), Revision Notes inPsychiatry, Third Edition, CRC Press, page 455
Sadock, B. J., Kaplan, H. I., & Sadock, V. A. (2007). Kaplan& Sadock`s synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinicalpsychiatry. Philadelphia: Wolter Kluwer/Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.
Schultz, J. M., & Videbeck, S. L. (2009). Lippincott`smanual of psychiatric nursing care plans. Philadelphia:Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, p.290