Personality and Individual Difference essay

Topic description: Issues in Personality

This project will concentrate on the procedureof getting solutions on issues inpersonality. Generally, as we speakabout somebody`s personality, we’re relating to what forms thatmake an individual unique from others. This personality feature isknown as personal differences.According to a few hypotheses, this is the core issue. Such theoriesusually spend more time on things such as types, experiments, andtraits that we can use to compare or categorize individuals: Someindividuals are fixated, others aren’t some individuals are highlyreticent, others highly overenthusiastic etc. Nonetheless,personality philosophers are only concerned with commonalitiesamongst persons. What, case in point, does a fixated individualtogether with the hale and hearty individual share? Otherwise what’sthe shared structure inside of person that shows itself to betimidity in a few and sociability inside of others? When you putindividuals on a specific dimension – for example healthy-fixatedor timidity-sociability – you’re implying that aspect is a thingeverybody may be put on. Despite them being fixated or not, everyperson has a capability for fitness and ill-fitness and despite thembeing extroverted or introverted, everyone is &quotverted&quotsomehow. Another means of explaining this involves that theorists ofpersonality are concerned in a persons’ structure, the emotionalstructure particularly. In which way are individuals &quotunited?&quotInwhich means do people &quotwork?&quot In which way do people&quotdisintegrate?&quot Some philosophers go on and allege they’rein search for the real meaning of being an individual. They alsoallege they’re in search for the meaning of being a personalindividual. The personality psychology field ranges from quite simpleexperimental quest for disparities between persons to relativelyphilosophical hunt for life meaning! Maybe it’s merely pridehowever, personality experts like thinking about their domain asbeing a kind of cover for the entire psychology field. We, in theend, are concerned of psychology and genetics, about education andgrowth, about group relations and civilization, about therapy andpathology. All such things are enclosed in a person.

Based on the above topic description, we willselect one journal article on issues and personality and do anannotated bibliography about it. Then, we will give a summary of thebook followed by my reactions and perceptions after reading thejournal article. I chose FredricksonandLevenson’sbook, which talks about how positivefeeling quicken recuperation from cardiovascular ramification ofdepressing feelings.

Fredrickson, B.L. &amp Levinson, R.W.(1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascularsequelae of negative emotions. Cognitiveemotion, 12, 191 -220

Book Summary

Proof for Fredrickson and Levinson’ theoryhas understandable connotations in favour of the techniques thatindividuals employ to control their encounters of depressingfeelings. If depressing emotions reduce the short-lived idea-activityrepertoire as well as positive feelings lengthen this similarrepertoire, in that case positive feelings must operate as competentantidotes in favour of the persistent impacts of depressing emotions.That is to say, positive feelings may recover or disengage the impactof depressing emotions this is called “undoingtheory” (Fredrickson &ampLevenson, 1998 Nuckols &amp Hazelden Foundation, 2014). The centralfinding that positive emotions are one way or another mismatched withnegative emotions isn’t new and has been confirmed in previousstudy on nervousness disorders, for example, methodicaldesensitization (Winston et al, 2004), motivation (for example,rival-process hypothesis (Berube, 2010), and violence, for example,law of mismatched reactions (DelPo &amp Guerin, 2015). Yet thecorrect technique ultimately accountable for such inaptness hasn’tbeen sufficiently discovered. The lengthening role of positiveemotions might assume a function. By expanding an individual`sshort-lived idea–activity repertoire, positive feeling can undo theclasp that an unconstructive feeling has achieved on suchindividual`s mind along with body through undoing or dismantlingpreparation in favour of exact action.

One indicator of exact action inclinationslinked to unconstructive feelings is augmented cardiovascular action,which reorganizes flow of blood to appropriate skeletal tendons.Within the case of unconstructive emotions, in that case positivefeelings should quicken recuperation from otherwise dismantle suchcardiovascular activity, bringing the body back to extra midrangeactivation levels. By quickening cardiovascular recuperation,positive feelings make the context of the body fitting in favor ofhunting for the wider range of ideas and activities called for.

Fredrickson and Levinson’s “Undoing Theory”forecast that people, who encounter positive feelings on theobedience of a huge-spur negative feeling will manifest the quickestcardiovascular recuperation. Fredrickson and Levinson experimentedthis through recording time passed after starting of a haphazardlyassigned movie till cardiovascular responses activated by anunconstructive emotion went back to normal standard levels. Inside ofthree uncontrolled samples, respondents in two positive emotionsituations (contentment and joy) showed quicker cardiovascularrecuperation than respondents in nonaligned control situation.Respondents in grief situation showed the most lingering recuperation(Villanueva, 2010 Fredrickson &amp Levenson, 1998).

My reactions

In my view, Fredrickson and Levinson book iswell written, easily to read and understand. It is an informativejournal article and the outstanding insight is that negative emotionsreduce the short-lived thought-activity repertoire, as well as thatpositive feelings lengthen this similar repertoire. I never knew thisknowledge before. This topic about issues in personality is veryimportant because, throughout historical backdrop, numerous famousphilosophers and thinkers, such as Fredrickson and Levenson developedconflicting conjectures to justify issues in personality, hencestudying their contradicting hypotheses on personality offerssimilar, conflicting, and novel dimensions in relation to personalityas well as through what methods they examine personality (Jordan,2011). Additionally, studying diverse theories on personality allowsus to perceive the viewpoint every philosopher utilized to fabricateassumptions on personality. Fredrickson and Levenson suggest that therole of constructive feelings involves speeding cardiovascularrecuperation from depressing emotions.

On the other hand, this book has contradictingideas. Whilst the proof offered for this argument is persuasive, theoutcomes are to some extent surprising. In contrast to previousresults, these studies discovered sadness and fear to reduce heartrate. The Ruch chapter claims that laughter is linked to heart raterise, while other researchers have linked heartbeat rise to approachactions (presumably accompanied with positive feelings). Therefore,if grief along with fear reduce heart rate as per Fredrickson andLevenson’s tests, it looks somewhat sensible that feelings linkedto reductions in heartbeat (smiling, amusement) would quickenrecovery. But, the question remains if this may be hypothesized tosituations in which sadness and fear increase heart rate. It appearsthat inside of these instances, the impact of laughter might actuallyprotract heartbeat increases. That is, increases linked to both fearand laughter could behave in a bogus way, increasing the reaction.Still, this impact would appear to disagree with rival processhypothesis and alliesthesia discoveries of Angleitner and Wiggins(2013). If contradictory subjective feelings were supposed to deepenactivation, balance will be hard to accomplish. This theoreticalchallenge is possibly the outcome of an over-expansion of ANSspecificity theory. When `contradicting` emotions get encountered inimmediate temporal propinquity, their personal linked autonomicadjustments might not happen. Thus, Fredrickson and Levinson’sideas about Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascularsequelae of negative emotions are very difficult to understand.


Angleitner, A., &amp Wiggins, J. S. (2013).Personality assessment viaquestionnaires: Current issues in theory and measurement.Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Berube, C. T. (2010). The&quotX&quot factor: Personality traits of exceptional scienceteachers. Charlotte, N.C:Information Age Pub.

DelPo, A., &amp Guerin, L. (2015). Dealingwith problem employees: How to manage performance &amp personalityissues in the workplace.

Fredrickson, B.L. &amp Levinson, R.W. (1998).Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae ofnegative emotions. Cognitive emotion,12, 191 -22

Jordan, M. E. (2011). Personalitytraits: Theory, testing and influences.New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Nuckols, C. C., &amp Hazelden Foundation.(2014). Personality issues.Center City, MN: Hazelden Foundation.

Villanueva, J. P. (2010). Personalitytraits: Classifications, effects and changes.New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Winston, R. M. L., Gibbon, J., BritishBroadcasting Corporation., Open University., &amp Films for theHumanities &amp Sciences (Firm). (2004). Personality.Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities &amp Sciences.