Expectancy theory was victor vroom brain child it explains the reasons as to why individuals choose to go by courses of action in decision making and leadership in various organizations this involves the processes that an individual goes through in the event of making a certain decision. It further recognizes that individuals have got different set goals that can be motivated if there is a believe that there exists a relationship between efforts and performance, a believe that performance will result to the desired reward whether intrinsic or extrinsic and that the reward will satisfy a certain need.
The theory also features the strengths of a person’s believe about the attainability of a job performance. (Mehrabian, 1971 pg 243) The theory puts emphasis on the fact that employees in any organization should put efforts that yield better performance and production which in turn result to organizational rewards such as an increase in salary or a review of the employee’s terms of service. There are however some factors that contribute to an employees level of expectancy.
These include the individual’s level of confidence in the skills required and the previous success in a task similar to the one being undertaken. (Merton, 1948 pg 332). Expectancy theory is based on three beliefs namely; valence, expectancy, and instrumentality. Valence entails what people have in mind relating to expected outcome. It further may refer to the levels of satisfaction one expects from the outcome. Expectancy refers to the expectations of an employee out of the job and the levels of confidence that they hold.
Any employee will have the urge to try a task if he/she has it in mind that it can be achieved. The quality of materials and availability of equipment in a way also strengthen an individual’s expectancy. Instrumentality is the perception that the employee will get what they desire out of what they do. For an employee to make a significant contribution to an organization, he /she has to have a firm believe high level of performance is proportional to the rewards. (Vroom, 1964 pg 107). People have preferences among various out comes and these preferences reflect an individuals state.
The management should communicate to its employees the fact that there is a connection between performance and the expected reward. People’s beliefs about valence expectancy and instrumentality create a motivational force psychologically and thus any employee will pursue jobs that he/she believes will maximize their interests. This theory recognizes individual perceptions and personal histories it allows a high degree of individuality. Expectancy theory applies in any organization that has employees.
Any employee will go to work simply because they get motivated through pay or otherwise. This does not necessarily mean that they enjoy the kind of work they do. Any worker will make a choice of the available options and the beneficial results attached to what they do. This is however dependent on the outcome for it determines the energy they have to spend in achieving these objectives. (Kovach, 1987 pg 133) Individuals are in a position to determine the preferred outcomes and the realistic estimate of the chances of obtaining them.
Expectancy thus recommends direct reward to performance and also ensure that the rewards provided are those expected by the employee. Success of any situation is directly connected to the expected reward. However there may be no motivational force on an employee if he /she believes that the outcome associated with the completion of the task have no value to the person. The individual should thus have the believe that the task can be accomplished.