1. Research findings on the roles of family management practicesand parental involvement in adolescent achievement.
The expectations of parents may influence the adolescent’s pursuitof better grades in school. When parents place high expectations onthe shoulders of adolescents, they are likely to work harder in orderto avoid disappointing their parents and consequently missing theirapproval. However, some parents may set lower expectations for theirteenagers as a way of protecting their self-esteem. Research hasshown that such teenagers usually end up performing below theirstandards.
Parents that are more involved in the lives of their teenagersusually have a positive impact on their achievements. Teenagersusually need someone to look up to and a person to advise them on thestruggles of life. Parental involvement is especially important whenteenagers are choosing their careers. Many teenagers dream to pursuea good career but then they lack someone to mentor. Parents who aremore involved in the lives of their teenagers will mentor them tomake better career choices. However, research has also shown thatsome adolescents have chosen the wrong career path due to theinvolvement of their parents. It is upon the parent to know when theyare over-involved in the lives of their teenage children.
2.Some of the barriers to learning faced by adolescents from low-incomebackgrounds
Adolescents from low-income backgrounds have to work at the expenseof putting more effort in their studies. Some work for as many as 20hours in a week. These adolescents have little time for extrastudying, doing homework, and consulting with their peers. With thetough economic times, some adolescents may have to work longer hours,a move that will further impair their learning ability.
Adolescents from low-income backgrounds usually have very few peoplein their life to look up to. Most of the parents in thissocio-economic bracket did not perform well in their education andthey rarely view education as something of major importance. Theseparents end up not placing any academic expectations on theirchildren.
When adolescents from low-income backgrounds work for theirallowance, thy end up spending more time with their peers than withtheir parents. Peer influence with minimal parental guidance drivesthem to experiment on drugs and engage in various delinquencies. Thedeveloping antisocial behavior is usually a barrier to learning.
3.Ways of improving relationships among ethnically diverse students
Teachers should acknowledge that children from different ethnicgroups have different cultural practices and values. Leading theother students in respecting the cultures of those that come fromdifferent ethnicities will go a long way in improving relationshipsamong ethnically diverse students.
Schools should mark ethnic events such as the Martin Luther Day forthe African Americans and Tacos for the Hispanics. This move driveout intercultural ignorance and help students to appreciate thecultures of others.
Organizing ethnically diverse group assignments will foster goodrelationships between students of different cultures. Teachers shoulddiscourage student groups that comprise of members from oneethnicity, especially those that fall under the ethnic minorities.
School administrations should prohibit students from bullying othersbased on their ethnicity. Those found to be culpable of the offenceshould face harsh consequences. The law should apply within theschool premises and away from the school setting.
4.Compare and contrast between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
Intrinsicmotivation emanates from internal factors such as challenge, effort,curiosity, and self-determination. The student does not need theinput of his teachers or parents in order to work hard in hiseducation. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation comes fromexternal factors such as a reward for good performance, andpunishment for misdemeanor. In the absence of the aforementionedexternal factors, the student will perform poorly in their education.Psychologists stress the importance if intrinsic motivation overextrinsic motivation. It is for this reason that teachers are advisedto create a classroom environment that encourages intrinsicmotivation.
Althoughthe two types of motivation vary on their source, they are bothimportant for learning among adolescents. Prospects for a better jobfor upward mobility are among the important extrinsic motivationfactors for learning among adolescents. Extrinsic motivation is whatleads to the buildup of intrinsic motivation. Without the externalfactors, most teenagers would not condition themselves to beself-determined, and curious to gain more knowledge in school.
5.Avoiding and overcoming Procrastination
A time schedule is necessary to avoid procrastination. An adolescentshould draw a time schedule for school activities and leisure time.Quite often, leisure activities are the reason behind theprocrastination of school activities. However, it will requirediscipline to follow the schedule. Any school activity that is notcompleted within the stipulated time should eat into leisure time andnot postponed to the next day. Such high levels of discipline willrequire long periods of dedication and training. Teachers and parentsshould ensure that adolescents learn to follow the schedule.
Setting penalties for oneself is a good way to preventprocrastination. For instance, if the adolescent fails to do a schoolassignment because he was watching TV, doing the assignment shouldeat into his sleeping time. For instance, if he is used to sleepingat 11PM, he should work on the assignment until 2AM. That way, theadolescent will learn that every decision has consequences. However,achieving such levels of self-discipline will need the guidance andmonitoring of teachers and parents.