Introduction Multiplesclerosis (MS) is a disease that is associated with the inflammationof the white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). It is one ofthe most common sources of disability for young adults. It isgenerally considered as a genetic disease that is mediated by T cellsthat are auto-reactive. MS has been found to have links with thehallmarks of inflammation in the CNS like the T cells, the clonalexpansion of B cells, and the antibody products. The plaques in thewhite matter of the CNS of the patients of MS have been revealedthrough gross examination of the brain tissue of the patients. It hasbeen discovered that the condition is linked to the optic nerves,periventricular regions, spinal cord and brain stem. The active MSlesions have been found to have significant axonal injury with axonaltransections in abundance (Hafler 788). Research has indicated thatnearly 15% of the patients with multiple sclerosis develop primaryprogressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) (Miller and Leary 903). Theprimary progressive multiple sclerosis is a type of the disease thathas the neurological disability gradually increases (Miller and Leary903).
TheOpposition As the disease grows, it begins to have aneffect on the CD4 and the CD8 T cells. It also concurrently causesthe loss of axons and myelin. MS is known to be highly inheritable.However, the existing research shows that only chromosome 6, on theMHC region as a clear association with the condition (Hafler788). Many therapies have been used in relieving patients ofmultiple sclerosis. One of the therapies is the use of dimethylfumarate. This medicine has been used in treating the relapsingmultiple sclerosis. However, there have been reports of patients whoused the medicine and developed certain undesired conditions, even tothe point of death (Aschenbrenner 117). The Food and DrugAdministration approved dimethyl fumarate as a medicine forminimizing or preventing the relapse of MS. However, a case wasdocumented of a patient who developed a rare case of serious braininfection. The infection that the patient developed was theprogressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) (Aschenbrenner 116).PML is characterized by the symptoms like one side of the bodyprogressively becoming weak, vision problems, clumsiness, confusion,personality changes, alterations in thinking and orientation(Aschenbrenner 115).
TheClaim Many scholars have claimed that the therapies usedin treating the disease may lead to other undesired conditions(Aschenbrenner 117). However, new research shows that there has beena general improvement in the diagnosis and management of the disease.Through the integration of the magnetic resonance imaging, it hasbeen possible to effectively diagnose the disease and manage it.However, its main cause remains in a blur. New researches have comeup with immunotherapies that have the potential to stop the relapses.It is also hoped that they can delay progression. Newresearch has also helped in effectively establishing the link betweenMS and the environmental risk factors. Some of the environmental riskfactors include smoking, vitamin D deficiency and prior exposure toEpstein-Barr virus (EBV). These factors are believed to assist thedevelopment of MS by affecting the immune system (Wakerley, Nicholasand Malik 523). Smoking has been confirmed as a risk factor for MS.Researches that have been done indicated that those who have smoked,in comparison to those who have not, using controls, discovered thatthe people who had smoked were 1.3 times more likely to develop MS(Wakerley, Nicholas and Malik 523). It is suggested by researchersthat smoking can increase the nitric oxide in the central nervoussystem lesions. Other surrounding factors that have been identifiedinclude the geographical location, migration patterns (Ebers 270).Ebers (273) explains that vitamin D deficiency results from factorssuch as sunlight, latitude, and photobiology. Through outdooractivities and healthy lifestyle factors, the problem with vitamin Ddeficiency can be effectively minimized.
CommonGround Despite the disparities in the views and researchfindings on multiple sclerosis, it is clear that there are somefactors that have been common regarding MS. For instance, it iscommonly agreed that multiple sclerosis causes the inflammation ofthe CNS white matter. All researchers on the matter have also agreedthat the condition is facilitated by automotive processes. Eventhough a few researchers have not come to terms with the interventionmeasures, immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies have beensupported by most researchers as the most effective means of handlingthe disease. The use of these therapies has also contributed greatlyto the confirmation of the hypothesis that autoimmunity has asignificant role in the pathology of the disease. T cells and the Bcell antibodies have been extensively considered concerning theirrelationship with the disease. It is agreed by researchers that thecondition has not been extensively considered, and there is need fora new direction of the research on the disease. This is especiallyrelevant to the fact that there is still currently no specificcausative agent of the disease. To further understand the disease andits therapies, future research needs to be redesigned andredirected. The environmental factors need to be effectivelycontrolled and minimized to reduce the susceptibility to thisdisease. Certain groups of individuals who are more prone to thedisease should be discouraged from smoking. Children should also beexposed to enough sunlight as they grow to avoid the cases of vitaminD deficiency (Miller 911).
Conclusion Theexisting research on multiple sclerosis has diverse ideas about theeffectiveness of the therapies that are currently being used inaddressing the disease. Some researchers state that the methods thathave been used have harmful side effects while others quote some ofthe best methods that can be used effectively. However, the commonground is that multiple sclerosis is a disease that affectsespecially the young adults and is widely affected by environmentalfactors. Scientists agree that effectively controlling theseenvironmental factors can reduce susceptibility.
Aschenbrenner,Diane S. "a Rare Brain Infection with Drug." TheAmerican Journal of Nursing,sec. 115: 22. 2015. Web.
Thisis a news article presenting a case of therapy gone wrong. Itexplains how a patient developed a rare but serious brain infectionfrom undergoing dimethyl fumarare, which is a therapy for multiplesclerosis. The dimethyl fumarare was approved in March 2013 by theFood and Drug Administration but has led to some health problems asits side effects.Ebers,GC. "Environmental Factors and ."LancetNeurol 7.3(2008): 268-77. Web.
Thisarticle discusses the various environmental factors that contributeto, and promote multiple sclerosis. By studying the case of Canada,Ebers is able to present strong evidence supporting the hypothesisthat environmental factors affect the distribution of multiplesclerosis. This article is useful in setting a common ground for theexisting research.
Hafler,David A. "." TheJournal of clinical investigation 113.6(2004): 788-94. Web.
Inthis article, David Hafler discusses the meaning to multiplesclerosis. It also presents the new methods of defining molecularpathology of the disease. To understand the disease and develop acommon stand about the disease, the propositions made in this articleare worth considering.
Miller,DH and Leary. "Primary-Progressive ." LancetNeurol 6.10(2007): 903-12. Web.
Thisarticle provides factual data about primary-progressive multiplesclerosis (PPMS). According to Miller, nearly 15% of multiplesclerosis patients develop a neurological disability that isgradually increasing. This is what the author describes as PPMS. FromMiller’s perspective, it is possible to come to a consensus aboutthe details concerning the disease.
Wakerley,Benjamin, Richard Nicholas, and Omar Malik. "MultipleSclerosis." Medicine 40.10(2012): 523-8. Web.
Wakerley,Nicholas, and Malik make a strong statement about the condition ofmultiple sclerosis. The authors also give detailed information abouthow the disease affects individuals. Their recommendations on themost effective diagnostic criteria and therapy options are goodpointers towards establishing common grounds concerning the disease.
Aschenbrenner,Diane S. "a Rare Brain Infection with Drug."The American Journal of Nursing, sec. 115: 22. 2015. Web.
Ebers,GC. "Environmental Factors and ."LancetNeurol 7.3 (2008): 268-77. Web.
Hafler,David A. "." The Journal of clinicalinvestigation 113.6 (2004): 788-94. Web.
Miller,DH and Leary."Primary-Progressive ." Lancet Neurol6.10 (2007): 903-12. Web.
Wakerley,Benjamin, Richard Nicholas, and Omar Malik. "MultipleSclerosis." Medicine 40.10 (2012): 523-8. Web.