Hofstede’scultural dimension of individualism and collectivism delves into thelevel in which individuals in a society become integrated intogroups. The two vary in the aspects where individualistic groups areoften associated with loose personal ties especially to the immediatefamily. In contrast, the collective society involves tightly knittedrelationships that go further into extended families and othergroups. The effects of this phenomena can be illustrated if a managerexhibits individualism, he can be able to improve his confidence andperformance. However, a personal gain may arise. Collectivism mayfoster efficient teamwork, but the manager can free ride on theefforts made by others.
Trompenaar’scultural dimension describes how populations from different countriesexhibiting varied characteristics can relate and adapt to the naturalenvironmental surrounding. Project managers, therefore, have to lookfor means to deal with resistance to change from internally orientedcultures while on the other hand the manager can interact better andachieve more when associating with externally oriented cultures byfocusing on the value of harmony and innovation.
Thereare several challenges faced by managers with the main beingcommunication for instance language barriers that reduceopportunities, varied interpretation of context especially highcontext cultures like Arabian. Also, differed perceptions for exampleopinion and discerning of certain issues may vary, hierarchy statusmore so between managers and team members or even issues ofmasculinity versus feminism. Lastly, cultural variations which mayinclude how companies, individuals or consultants normally do thingsis also a significant task.
Whileinteracting with people from other countries, acceptance of newideologies pose a major problem and at times, an implementation maytake longer than if it was in the same country. However, the positiveaspects observed in the foreign countries involves the desire tolearn more and acquire a variety of skills from other nations.
Rentfrow, T. (2007). Effective Leadership within a Multinational Environment. Retrieved from Leadership Advance: http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/lao/issue_10/rentfrow.htm