MOTIVATIONAL THEORIES/MEMORY ACQUISITION 8
Severaltheories of explaining motivation have been put forward byresearchers. Among these include the drive theory, incentive,arousal, and brain state theories. Motivation is identified as theforce that instigates, directs and sustains goal-oriented behaviors(Malinowski, 2008). Motivational theories influence behavior byforming a cycle where thoughts sway behaviors and in turn behaviorscompel performance. Consequently, performance influence thoughts andthe cycle start again. Each phase of the sequence is comprisesseveral dimensions that include mind-set, values, intent andendeavors as well as withdrawal which all have consequences on themotivation expressed by an individual (Malinowski, 2008). Differenttheories of motivation influence behavior as discussed below.
BehaviorOne: Eating Behavior
Thistheory explains how unmet biological needs drive individuals towardsthe direction of meeting them. Therefore, the drive theory motivatespeople to undertake particular actions to lower the tension caused bythe unmet needs. Hence, individuals are motivated to eat to reduceinternal tension arising from hunger.
Inthis theory, motivation arises from the attraction of certainobjectives. Incentives are viewed as rewards that would motivateindividuals to act. Therefore, the incentive theory motivates peopleto eat so as to gain the rewards that arise from a healthy life suchas improved immunity.
Thistheory holds the view that people have a distinct level of arousalthat is precise for them (Malinowski, 2008). When the arousal levelfalls below the mandated optimal levels, individuals seek incentivesto raise them. When satisfaction gained from eating falls below whatan individual would consider as "hunger", an individualbecomes motivated to eat.
Thesetheories claim that the only particular thing that motivates intendedactions or the only valuable thing is the brain itself being in aspecified state. Larkin, Brasel & Pines (2013) argue that themodern day brain state theories concur that happiness is the onlything that matters. From this theory, eating is prompted to bring anindividual into a state of comfort from which the individual deriveshappiness.
Thetheory explains that individuals are faced with certain biologicalneeds that motivate their behaviors (Malinowski, 2008). The driversinfluence the urgency to meet the needs. Hence, Sleeping is a needthat is achieved when an individual is faced with the urge to take anap according to drive theory.
Thistheory suggests that individuals are pulled into particular actionsby potential outside rewards. The value of incentives may differdepending on time and situation. Sleeping is a behavior that anindividual may engage with the motivation to gain better healthhence, save money that would otherwise be used to meet medical costsassociated with exhaustion.
Peopleare induced to certain behaviors that help them to sustain theiroptimal arousal levels. Sleeping is a behavior that involvesindividuals who pursue relaxing activities implying low arousallevels. A person with high arousal level is motivated to engage inmore exciting activities such as skydiving.
Thesetheories pay attention to actions that get the brain into aparticular way. The proponents of this theory argue that the state ofmind needs pleasure and freedom from pain. Therefore, people aremotivated to sleep to avoid the pains that may arise from stayingawake for an extended period or put the brain into a relaxed state.
Differentpeople use these motivational theories to influence behavior in avariety of ways. Parents, advertisers, as well as managers, may usethese theories to achieve different motives. For instance, parentsmay use the incentive theory to instill hard work in children byoffering small gifts for good performance. Managers may employarousal theory in dealing with workers who engage in thrilling, butdangerous activities by advising them to adopt low-level arousalactivities such as reading a book. Incentives may also be used toencourage more productivity among the employees (Larkin, Brasel &Pines, 2013). Also, advertisers and other marketers may use the brainstate theories knowledge to influence the purchasing process ofconsumers. This may happen when advertisers engage in intensiveadvertising campaigns to market goods that are believed to providemaximum satisfaction among consumers. Therefore, these theories havea significant impact on how others influence individual behavior.
Accordingto French(2006),the act of memorizing comprises of three separate stages. A personfirst acquires new information, which is then stored until it becomesnecessary. Lastly, an individual retrieves the stored information. Inthe day-to-day activities, the environment settings offer humans withthe platform in which they receive a constant stream of informationfrom their physical experiences and thought processes. To manage thisstimulation of continuous information, humans use a combination ofboth unconscious and conscious effort. However, brain filters theinformation it receives because it cannot process every bit ofconscious stimulation. The unconscious effort helps the brain toprocess information such as sudden bright light or a loud sound. Onthe other hand, conscious effort assists in capturing daily actions,including reading books, watching and playing games, driving, andfollowing a recipe in cookbooks among other activities. Indeed, theway an individual thinks and the level of attention attached to aparticular experience influences how well that person acquiresmemory.
Maintenancerehearsal, though it has a little effect on consequent remembrance,helps to retain information in the memory. Individuals require anelaborative rehearsal in which they seek connections between thethings they already know and information to be recalled. In mostcircumstances, elaborative processing emphasizes on the “attentionto meaning” reasoning, commonly referred to as deep processing(French,2006).Scholars believe that deep processing results to good memoryperformance even if the process did not intend to memorize the targetinformation. Indeed, deep processing leads to valuable effects bygenerating efficient retrieval pathways. Consequently, it becomeseasy to trace necessary information in memory. In fact, studiesportray that there exist a close relationship between the capacity tocomprehend some material and the capability to remember that contentin the future as validated through number series, visual patterns,stories, and many other different forms of stimuli.
ElectronicLearning and Memory Systems for a Robot
Scientistsconstruct models that stimulate human brain functionality to assistthem understand and design robots that would function more like ahuman being. Fundamentally, robot’s brain is devised in a way thatwould meet the intended purpose. Therefore, while creating a brainfor a robot, I would select the brain parts that would enable it toperform its tasks effectively and efficiently. I would make somechanges to the commonly known human brain. First, I would use aninvariable hardware. In this regard, the robot would not have thekind of flexibility existing in the human brains. A person’s mindis capable of continuously changing in response to variousexperiences encountered. Indeed, I would ensure the hardware of myrobot consist of a collection of electric on-off controls that treatall inbound signals the same.
Importantly,I would ensure that the operations of the robot are under the controlof the external factors to manage its behaviors at every time. Thehuman brain is self-repairing because it contains trauma-inducedplasticity that assist in correcting the situation after injury (Jin&Lin, 2012).However, designing a robot in such a way may be dangerous sincemachines sometimes may fail to stimulate the self-repairing systemthus making the robot a threat. In this regard, external controlsseem to be the best approach to prevent such adverse effects in caseof malfunction of the internal system. Indeed, self-organization canonly be possible with a human brain since neurons play a significantrole in the self-regulation. However, these variations from the humandesign would not affect the intended operations of the robot.
French,L. M. (2006). Phonologicalworking memory and second language acquisition: A developmental studyof francophone children learning English in Quebec.Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.
Jin,D., & Lin, S. (2012). Advancesin future computer and control systems.Heidelberg:Springer.
Larkin,J., Brasel, A., & Pines, H. (2013). Cross-disciplinaryapplications of I/O psychology concepts: Predicting student retentionand employee turnover. ReviewOf General Psychology,17(1),82-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0030999
Malinowski,P. (2008). Mindfulness as psychological dimension: Concepts andapplications. TheIrish Journal of Psychology,29(1-2),155-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03033910.2008.10446281