Poultry production is a commonly practiced on every farm. Modern production of poultry occurs primarily in enclosed buildings to protect the birds from spread of diseases, weather conditions and also from predators. This has enabled farmer’s efficiency in production while reducing the cost of labor. Today’s poultry production is the product of advanced science programes aimed at producing more meat and eggs with little feed consumed. The sector is in constant need of skilled people like Supervisors and Managers who effectively run egg farms, hatcheries and broiler farms.
A combination of privately owned and corporate businesses provides extensive career paths. Poultry products have the highest per capita consumption in the United States. People eat many different poultry products, including eggs, turkey ham, buffalo wings, hot dogs, chicken nuggets, chicken-patties, fried, roasted, glazed, marinated, etc. Humans, however, directly consume not all of poultry products. For example, eggs are also used for the production of therapeutic vaccines and are beginning to be used for production of antibodies and pharmacological proteins.
Before the World War II poultry were reared in backyard flocks on dirt-floored pens, in small sheds with natural or makeshift ventilation. Today, broiler flocks are reared in enclosed buildings with updated equipment. For instance, birds are now reared in confinement with on-demand feeder lines, on-demand cup or nipple waterers, or on-demand bell-type waterers. These developments overcame most problems with weather, predators, and potential pollution allowing the use of more intensive production schedules.
Poultry manure is handled as a solid litter, which is either deposited directly by the animals, or collected in bedding placed on solid shelter floors to absorb the urine. Some turkeys, broilers, and ducks are raised on concrete or earthen floors. Laying hens, and broiler breeders are reared in either wire-cages or slotted-floor systems. If a slotted flooring system is used, there may or may not be a central area containing litter. Layers in commercial facilities produce a great deal of body heat.
Ventilation to keep the hens cool is usually more of a concern than providing heat in winter. Poultry farming is a highly specialized industry, with different companies involved in different stages of the production chain. Shortening the poultry meat chain will bring all these activities together in a single location in order to minimize the need for transport and to improve animal welfare. The factors that affect quality of a poultry product is logistics. The quality of the meat is directly proportional to the rearing conditions.
In general terms, cooler temperatures increased yields of lean meat in turkeys with effects on skin weights, and energy to protein ratios are important in determining the extent of fat deposition in the body cavity and in the skin. If fat has to be removed at processing time or the carcasses are to be cut up into portions, then yield is affected detrimentally. If, as is increasingly the case, the carcass is to be cooked before sale, carcasses with high levels of fat show high losses.
Carcasses and portions with high fat content when cooked at home appear to be poorer in value for money terms. Due to a lack of skilled labor in the poultry sector brings about lack of methods of slaughter. Methods of slaughter vary from country to country, but once again humane slaughter and bleeding of the Carcasses not only have important consequences for aesthetic and physical quality attributes, but are also a matter of animal welfare. Meat research institutes are continuously researching methods of stunning and slaughter.
We can probably agree that the customer will at the very least expect the carcass purchased to have been -Properly handled to avoid bruising and broken bones and later to have been properly slaughtered so as to Avoid redness, red wings, broken wings, blood specks and toughness in the meat when carved. The customer will also, quite justifiably, expect the defeathering and evisceration to have been performed to a High standard and in a way appropriate to the product being produced, whether fresh, frozen or cooked.
The most important aspect of quality is necessary after the fowl has been slaughtered. The maintenance of quality in the distribution and retailing phases centres on the precise control of temperature as well as packaging and handling systems with minimise physical and chemical (taint) damage. For unfrozen poultry, low temperature around 0°C extend shelf life quite markedly and temperatures of -18°C or lower for frozen poultry are useful to maintain color and minimise freezer burn. Packaging can also be an important element in the prospectus for high quality.
For unfrozen carcasses or cuts, controlled atmosphere packaging using gas flushing and modern laminated films can be most useful in maintaining color and freshness. The use of barrier bags to vacuum pack poultry can, along with high standards of processing and precise temperature control, also extend shelf Life to enable peak demands to be met or distant markets to be reached. Packaging is a valuable marketing tool in other ways. It is known as the silent salesman and often is what attracts customers to recognize the product and buy.
A warning may be in order here, however. If you have a distinctive pack or a well-known brand then be sure it always carries a repeatable level of product quality. Packaging can maintain quality; it should also carry by way of informative labeling all legal labeling requirements and information on product use. Poor instructions on product use, storage, cooking or recipes, etc … lead to product abuse and dissatisfaction leading to an erroneous assessment of product quality by the user. After all, the only time that real quality matters is when the product is in use.
There are many aspects of logistics when it comes in rearing a poultry farm. The three aspects, which constitute a successful poultry business, will depend on Feeding, Housing Poultry and Facilities. In feeding rations for chicks are about the same regardless of whether the chicks are to be raised for meat or egg production. Rations are formulated differently for adult poultry depending on the purpose. Broiler stock (meat) needs only feeders and waterers for adequate growth. A poultry house provides protection from elements.
It must have good ventilation- this circulates air and keeps the house dry. Dry litter should cover the ground to prevent the stock from standing in moisture. Separate housing is essential for poultry of significant age difference. Adequate facilities in egg production, where flocks will need a nesting facility. One nest for every four hens usually is appropriate. Poultry houses do not need roosts. Provide “litter” on the floor to keep stock dry. If litter becomes wet, replace it with dry material.
Logistics other than facilities, skilled labor, housing poultry, there are also factors connected to health of the birds. There are a number of sicknesses that can be transmitted from poultry birds to human beings. Since poultry is a prime source of meat for both domestic and international markets, many government agencies protect the farms from outbreaks of diseases such as avian flu that directly affect the supply of poultry products and less consumption. Evidently affecting the business itself.
In conclusion, for many, people the chance to eat a chicken meal are all they ask. For many others freshness, convenience and variety are the driving force in the market place. Indeed, as the pace quickens in the competitive environment it will be necessary for successful food products to offer quickness, quality, fitness and fun.
http://www. epa. gov/oecaagct/ag101/poultry. html http://www. ruralskills. com. au/ontrack/pages/jobs/livestock/poulprod. html http://journeytoforever. org/farm_library/ppp/pppToC. html