MidTerm Exam (Terrorism)
Module1: 204 words
Terrorismand risks involved to emergency responders
Theidea of terrorism was first experienced during the political turmoilin France, in which thousands of people were killed mercilessly.During this period up to the late 19thcentury, the term terrorism was entirely used in relation topolitical violence against the government (Newman & Clarke,2008). In this paper I am going to define the term terrorism, giveexamples of terrorist activities, roles of the first respondersduring emergency, and the outcomes of terrorist activities.
Terrorismcan be defined as the application of violent activities, or threatsto use violence in order to accomplish various goals withinpolitical, religious, and ideological grounds (Newman et al., 2008). Religious groups, political movements, governments in power, andnationalistic sects have been linked to the use of terrorism toachieve their goals. Examples of such activities include but notlimited to political terrorism, religious terrorism, and statesponsored terrorism.
Terroristactivities have always posed threats to emergency responders. Therisks encountered include secondary explosive devices, the risk ofbeing attacked by small firearms, like guns, substance hazards, andbiohazards. The risks are part of the strategies employed byterrorists to delay evacuation activities by the responders at thesite.
Module2: 210 words
Roleof the first responder
Firstresponders are trained individuals, who usual belong to an emergencyorganization, who arrive earlier at the scene of an incident beforeother groups (Technical Working Group on Crime Scene InvestigationNational Institute of Justice, 2008). They include members of theforces, firefighters, and medical practitioners within the emergencyunits. Ideally, a legible first responder should have a certificateto ascertain that he can provide pre-hospital aid in certain areas inan effective manner.
Theyhave a responsibility to assess the risks at the site of an attack.This enables local and national emergency to come armed against therisks identified.
Theyalso play a key role in aiding the local and national agencies inoperational and recovery processes like first aid, crowd control,transportation, and evacuation of the victims.
Interms of communication, the first responder provides the firstreliable information on what is happening on the ground. Theinformation provided is accurate, precise and objective to enhancequick decision making on how to bring the situation under control.
Fromthe above discussion, evident that first responders should bedesignated on the ground as fast as possible in case of an attack toensure the condition is dealt with in professional and timely manner.
Module3: 213 words
Themain objective of terrorist attacks is to disrupt the normalactivities of the society (Diamond & Wales, 2009). Therefore, inthe case of any terrorist attack, the outcome is likely to be a haltor interruption of daily activities. Terrorist attacks have bothdirect and indirect outcomes, and they irritate the social,political, and economic grounds.
Oneof the immediate outcomes of a terrorist attack is the loss ofproperty and life. for instance, the famous September 11 attacks inthe United States of America (U.S.A) cost insurance companies andthe general economy over 40 million USA dollars (Diamond et al.,2009). Airline companies in America made massive losses as theattacks raised fears among people. It was only through the governmentbailouts that the companies were able to return to normal operations.Additionally, many people lost their lives during the attacks.
Terroristattacks also affect the tourism sector. A case study is Bali wheretourism makes up over 50% of government income (Sageman, 2009) afterthe Bali bombings of 2002, resorts, hotels, leisure halls, andshopping malls that attracted tourists before the attacks wereevidently empty. Tourists were scared of visiting actually, theattacks did not only have the above impacts but also raised fearsamong the citizens.
Diamond,D and Wales, D.M. (2009). AdvancingCommunity Policing through Community Governance.Department of Justice.
Newman,G.R and Clarke, R.V. (2008). PolicingTerrorism: An Executive’s Guide.U.S.A: Rockville.
Sageman,M. (2009). UnderstandingTerror networks.Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
TechnicalWorking Group on Crime Scene Investigation National Institute ofJustice (2008) ElectronicCrime Scene Investigation: A Guide for First Responders, 2nd Edition.CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.