There are many ways to measure the negative consequences of these risks. Some of these are Threat Analysis, Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, Fault Tree Analysis, Event Tree Analysis, Cause –Consequence Analysis, and probabilistic Risk Assessment. In most cases, organizations use a mix of these techniques to determine the negative effects of these consequences. In order to quantify the negative consequences of an occurrence, the potential consequences of the occurrence and its’probability of occurrence needs consideration.
Taking up the issue of ethics, Information systems often present spaces sufficient to enable important human interaction. By enabling such interaction, systems designers create certain ethical structures. When one creates an information system, one also creates the ethics for a new world of interaction and such ethics needs specific attention. Ethics can be breached in many ways that may not be apparent at the time of design of the IS.
Negative consequences could lead to access of prohibited data, loss of information, property and environmental damage and destruction and modification of files or programs leading to significant resource depletion. . Computing technology today enables unprecedented collection and exchange of personal information. The IS strategic design, even with the best of intentions may lead to such negative consequences including the violation of the privacy of individuals and groups, the entering or using of another’s system, data or software.
Negative consequences will also have to take account of the probability and severity of occurences which could lead to breach of the code of ethics, expected to be followed by all organizations in IS design and strategy, namely that “the products of their efforts will be used in socially responsible ways, will meet social needs, and will avoid harmful effects to health and welfare”( ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, (2003), acm Computing and Public Policy, Retrieved June 6, 2006 from ).
Consequence Analysis, especially quantification of negative consequences is thus an imperative for an exercise in IS strategy and design. Assessment is done by combining the severity of consequence with the likelihood of occurrence in a matrix. Negative consequences that fall into the “unacceptable” category (e. g. , high severity, high criticality and high probability) need to be reduced by some means during design and implementation to mitigate and avoid such occurences. Task 4
Drawing on extant academic literature, provide a critique of significant and likely changes in the field of Information Systems and/or Technology over the next five years, which you feel maybe relevant to the organization you are investigating. Additionally, you should provide a set of possible projections and any features, which may influence this probability either within or without the organization’s control. 4. Technological Changes Next Five Years 4. 1 Expected Technological Changes A number of technological and software resources which we take for granted today were not in use in 2001.
Some of these are I Pods, Cameraphones, Satellite Radios, Blogging, Wikipedia and the recently introduced MMORPGs. There are a number of products and services, which are under development now and should be in common use by 2011. Examples of these, which would be relevant to the chosen organization Google, are as follows. Internet will go Wi Fi on a global scale and with internet access shifting to the physically mobile user usage will go up dramatically Software as service will become standard. Social networking and media sharing services will become integrated at the OS level.
Media will become digitized with media sharing and filtering with easy access to streaming and shared media Phones will become the primary convergence device for all interaction through the internet wit 3G, Bluetooth and photo capture already available. Radio Frequency Identification (Radio Frequency Identification, Pg 1) usage will become much more prevalent than what it is today and will go international standardization under ISO rules. EBooks will record enormous growth and will replace a big chunk of available printed literature.
Software is becoming more commercialized and new products, which are developed to come into the real world as soon as possible, go through a phase of technology roadmapping as an integral part of their development process. Software technology roadmapping, a form of technology planning identifies and develops the technology required in the company for new products and services. The following illustration, (Technology Roadmap, Pg 1) shows the three phases adopted by most software product managers before the product is introduced in the market.