Macro essay

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1)Signaling pathway needs to be regulated to enable the cells torespond to extracellular signals as required. The interaction ofvarious signaling pathways allows the fine tuning of the cellularactions necessary to perform complicated developmental andphysiological functions (Hay, 2013).

2)The effect insulin resistance relies on the physiological role of thetissues and organs concerned, and their reliance on insulin formetabolic processes (Rorsman, et al 2000). The tissues defined asinsulin reliant, based on intracellular glucose transfer, areprimarily adipose tissue and muscle. However, insulin`s Activitiesare diverse, as are the manifestations of insulin resistance.

3)The function of the urea cycle is to provide ammonia in theenvironment. When the urea is produced in the liver of animals, it isdirected into the blood stream, where the kidney filters the urea.Eventually, the urea is released through the urine (Guthrie, &ampFink, 2002). The urea cycle is composed of several reactions with thefirst occurring in the matrix of the mitochondria while thesubsequent ones occur in the cytosol. The pathway spans two cellularcompartments with the first reaction being catalyzed by OrnithineTranscar Bamoyl, transferring A Carbamoyl group to ornithurine.

4)Gluconeogenesis is a metabolic parkway that prompts the era ofglucose from non-sugar components, for example, glycerol, lactate,and glycogenic amino acids (Lodish, 2008). It is one of the principleways people and different creatures apply to prevent hypoglycemia bykeep glucose levels in blood from dropping too low. The other methodfor keeping up blood glucose levels is by glycogenolysis, means ofthe breakdown of glycogen. Gluconeogenesis is an omnipresentprocedure, available in plants, creatures, organisms, and microscopicorganisms among different microorganisms (Rorsman, et al 2000). Increatures, Gluconeogenesis happens principally in the cortex of thekidneys and liver. This procedure happens amid period`slow-carbohydrate diets, and starvation, or intense exercise.

5)The ability of nutrition to influence the flow of genetic informationoccurs at multiple sites of control the bioactive dietary componentsare tested for their potential health-promoting properties (Rorsman,et al 2000). The biological effects of nutrients and food rely onphysiological processes such as absorption, biotransformation, andtransportation among others. Each of the processes affects severalgenes that alter their function and ultimately trigger aphysiological response to a food compound.

6)Protein is required for the construction and repair of the bodytissues. Therefore, if the body does get enough protein, it leads tomuscle wasting and related symptoms during strenuous exercise, thereare micro-tears of the muscles which cause the muscles to enlarge asthe bodies repair the tears. Protein is hence an immune response thathelps to heal the torn muscles (Guthrie, &amp Fink, 2002).

Theprotein hormones mount on the receptors of the cell membrane andhence do not enter the cell directly (Rorsman, et al 2000). Hormonalproteins such as insulin and Oxytocin play crucial in regulating theblood sugar and stimulating contractions during birth. The hormonesactivate muscle development by increasing protein synthesis andreducing protein breakdown

Enzymesare proteins that consolidate molecules to speed up chemicalreactions. Enzymes play the vital roles in muscle contraction andrelaxation and the transmission of the nerve impulses (Rorsman,et al2000). The enzymes also help in the digestion of carbohydrates andfat, and also exports cell a toxin which is required for thebreakdown of Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) which unleashes energy.

Theantibodies are specific protein arrangements which give specialdefense against attacks. They are produced when the body when it`sexposed to specific antigens which include, viruses, fungi, andbacteria. The complement proteins support the immune systemsproviding a second wall of defense. They are capable of creatingholes in the bacteria walls promoting inflammation hence attractingmacrophages which destroy the invading organisms (Rorsman,et al2000).

TheProtein is broken down into amino acids at digestion providing fourcalories per gram. Consuming proteins make one makes one full forlonger moments. Combining lean proteins such as beans and fish withwhole grains, vegetables, and healthy fats is a perfect way to supplythe body with the required energy (Hay, 2013).

7)Yes, protein can be converted into fat. When one takes more proteinthan the body needs, the body turns most of the calories in sugarwhich is then converted to fat (Rorsman,et al 2000). With increasedsugar in the blood, there is the development of pathogenic bacteriaand yeast as the two require sugar as their food, the predisposingfactors fuel the growth of cancer cells.


Guthrie,C., &amp Fink, G. R. (Eds.). (2002). Guideto yeast genetics and molecular and cell Biology: Part C(Vol. 351). Gulf Professional Publishing.

Hay,E. D. (Ed.). (2013). Cellbiology of extracellular matrix.Springer Science &amp Business Media.

Lodish,H. (2008). Molecularcell biology.Macmillan.

Rorsman,P., Eliasson, L., Renström, E., Gromada, J., Barg, S., &amp Göpel,S. (2000). The cell physiology of biphasic insulin secretion.Physiology,15(2),72-77.