is a belief system of protecting the notion of free will and choicesby denying determinism and also that it exists in a way that neitheroccurs randomly nor can be casually determined (Broad,p.56).The libertarians agree that the moral responsibility of an individualis a crucial concept for the society. Also, it is a politicalphilosophy that affirms individual rights to liberty, keep, acquireand exchange their holdings. considers the protectionof the rights of personswiththis forms the primary role of the state.
Onthe other hand, determinism, believes that every action is theinevitable result of the previousactions and events. It is therefore true that every action and orevent can bepredictedin advance. The determinists do not have confidence in the freewillnotion. Therefore, this paper will focus on libertarianism andexplain the issue to do with a humanfree will as opposed to deterministic philosophy. More so, the paperwill seek to prove that human actions and moral responsibility issolely offree will and not deterministic in nature.
works on the principle that every individualishaving a right to the maximum equal empirical liberty and this is theabsence of interference from other external factors especially whenone tries to undertake somethings. is advocated as aphilosophical theory of moral permissibility and also alwayssupportedas a philosophical theory of justice. In one perspective, justice isconcerned with the moral expected duties individuals owe to otherpersons.It least addresses the issues and tasksrelated impersonal positions and also duties owed to self. More so,justice concerns morally enforceable duties that individuals have. does not address functionsand issues which cannot be permitted to apply force inorder to ensurecompliance and non-compliance.
Freedomis as a form of independenceand it isdescribedas the ability to initiate a task and to undertake it one’s way,without taking the orders from authorities. All the anarchies standtooppose legal authority and political influence but the collectivist’sstrains resisteconomic powerespecially on the private property. The social anarchists emphasizemutual aid and on the other hand, individualist anarchists extoll thesovereignty of the individuals. An individual therefore can make adecision on their own bytheir preference and evaluation of the issue. Every person canmake such decisions and therefore personal autonomy for theindividuals.
Whenpersons turn through reflexive self-awareness turn to agents, theyexpress the degree of their agency by developing to necessitateaction to which the individuals assign weights. The choice of thedimension of one’s case in which the assignment of the weight to aparty seems self-consultative. But all are reasons is constitutive ofthe individual self in a sense that is broad especially in developingone person’s behavior and the personality in an analogous way thatthe shaping the law undertakes an individual through the precedentcourt decisions. In the same way, a judge does not use the law but tosome percentage degree, judicial discretion takes precedence, so tooan individual does not find weights but also assigns them one doesnot only weigh the reasons but also puts them under weigh. The aboveoffers a competitive advantage edge over the deterministic philosophyin terms of free will.
Furthermore,according to undertaken research, it is indicated that human beingshave inherently self-forming actions. These are moments of indecisionduring which people experience wills that are conflicting in nature.These self-forming actions are libertarians in nature, stoppingactions that are voluntary and or refrain from histories of therequired agents for ultimate responsibility. The ultimateresponsibility requires that less every act undertaken of the freewill be a libertarian and thus for every act, it could have beenundertaken otherwise. These forms of the human character inform thefuture choices, motivation in actions and the future.
Theadvocating of civil rightsincludesfree thought and love is also libertarianism in nature and cannot bealluded to determinism nor compatibilist. The promotingof free love views sexual freedom as direct expression andindividual sovereignty in atransparentmanner and can sometimes betracedback to the experimental communities. The civil rights further stresson the women’s rights since most of the sexual laws discriminatewomen regardingmarriage laws and even anti-birth control measures.
Thefree love appeared alongside anarcha-feminism and the ardent advocacyfor the LGBT rights. The Anarcha-feminism developed as a synthesis ofanarchism and radical feminism and this views patriarchy as afundamental manifestation of the compulsory government. Thefeminists, like other radical feminists advocate and criticize theabolition of the traditional conceptions of family education andgender roles (Feinbergand Russ, p.154).It is not deterministic in nature to love and especially making thespecific choice for whom to love. It is an individualistic choice tomake such a decision.
Moreso, the freethoughtphilosophy holds opinions that should beformedbyscience, reason and logic in contrast with tradition, authority andother existing dogmas. Formerly, free thought was anti-Christianwhose purpose was to make persons free regardingpolitics and spirituality tomake decisions for themselves. The move has expanded and gone furtherto establishing the freedom sexual orientation. Some of the coinedstatements from the movementinclude sexual revolution. The move is extensive and gone as far asopening free sex-counsellingclinics for the working class patients.
Thereforethe use of libertarianism in the area of free thought and lovesustains itself since human beings are relational beings and have aninnate capacity to develop their ideas and decisions. If humansexisted on the virtue of determinism, there would be no morality andmakechoices on the issues in life. The peoplehave an inner capacity endowed within for them to make decisionson the political leadership they want, the lifestyle, religiousstatus and even family life.
Thelibertarians believe that the state inherently works to violatepersonal autonomy. The state is characterized by the right to rule,and therefore it is authoritative. It rejects the state since it isthe only political doctrine that is consistent with autonomy in whicha person alone is the judge of their moral constraints. The sociallibertarians believe that the state isdefendingprivate property, which is viewed as intrinsically harmful and alsofurther arguesthat the free markets consistof economic privileges that aregranted by the state.
Itis not very clear as to whether the state is legitimate or not whilethe capitalists advocate for its abolition, the monarchist’ssupport minimal states. The liberationists take a very skeptical viewof the government authority. They maintain that the state isnecessary for individual protection from aggression, fraud and breachof contract. They believe that the only legitimate institutions inthe government are the police, military and courts. They justify thestate on the basis that it is the logical consequence adhering tonon-aggression and that anarchism is immoral since it makesnon-aggression principle optional. Other justifications arethat the owndefenses and court firms tend to represent the interests of theindividuals who have the ability to pay enough.
Thecapitalists argue that the state violates the non-aggressionprinciple. The reason is thatthe governments use force against those who have vandalized privateproperty, committed fraud and assaulted others. Others argue thatmonopolies are corrupt and inefficient, that the court agencies andprivate defense would have to have a good reputation in ordercontinue in business. There is therefore no coercive monopoly offorce that can arise ina genuinelyfree market and that the citizenry of a government can’t desertthem fora defense agency and competent protection. The free market prove ofthe libertarianism philosophical nature of the markets forindividuals to make choices.
Therefore,there are inherent differences between libertarianism anddeterminism. The two sides seem to be oppositeswith the most significant factor of contention being the issue offree will. The question that remains pending is whether human beingshave free will or not. Consequently, peoplehave free will but thereare some subtle events that arepredetermined. Personsmake conscious choices and decisions every day and some arestraightforwardand direct like the selectionof the cereal to use in the morning.
Broad,Charlie D. Determinism,Indeterminism and : An Inaugural Lecture.Cambridge: Univ. Pr, 1934. Print.
Feinberg,Joel, and Russ Shafer-Landau. Reasonand Responsibility: Readings in Some Basic Problems of Philosophy.Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2008. Print.
Lemos,John. Freedom,Responsibility, and Determinism: A Philosophical Dialogue.Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Pub. Co, 2013. Print.