Hegelianism is originally created by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel who was born in Germany devoting his entire life in the study of contemporary philosophy and Greek classics. According to Hegel, all reality is able to expressed in rational categories and his objective is to decrease reality to a more unreal agreement within the independence of human experience of phenomena but within the range of knowledge. Liberation Sociology
Emancipatory sociology or liberation sociology is focused with removing the strings attached to extreme poverty of numerous social repression and creating humane, just and democratic society (Feagin, 2001). It takes sides with, and takes the viewpoint of, the oppressed and foresees a drastic ending to that repression. Liberation sociology envisioned a society that is free from exploitation, repression, and domination of one class. It strives for both studying and rebuilding society. Feminist critique of social theorizing:
More and more women are intellectually inclined nowadays they are involved in many aspects from private to government project development and improvement. Most of them are inclined to research, involvement in the academy, economic development and even politics. Through debate and participation in the economic and social aspect of development is an avenue of every feminist to address its call for institutionalized feminist organizations and grass-root liberation and emancipation from patriarchal oppression. Structuralism
Structuralism is focused on our imaginative world as structured of and structured by and introduces the idea of the subject. It is created by difference among symbols in a suggesting system, for example, the meaning of the words “woman” and “lady” are determined by their relations to one another in a significant meaning which both refer to a human female. But both words ‘human” and “female” constitutes difference in meaning and not identified with real truth and spirit (Lye, 1999). Post structuralism and post modernism (Agger)
These theories are intellectual institutions which are popular in the fields of philosophy, aesthetic theory, critical literature, and women’s studies. Post-structuralism is mainly a theory of knowledge and language while postmodernism involves a theory of society, culture, and history. Post-structuralist is focused on literary and cultural texts. It also help science writers and readers recognized their own literary involvement and investment through their works by arranging the footnotes, title, description of the problem, literature reviews and by using quantitative method in presenting results and conclusions.
On the other hand, postmodernism is more liberal than radical, it discards the development of a universal social science. It refers to a cultural, intellectual, or artistic state missing a comprehensible central hierarchy or systematized principle and representing extreme complication, negation, multiplicity, and interrelatedness. Postmodernism is deeply doubtful of social sciences that covers their own venture in a particular outlook of the world.
Similar to post-structuralism and critical theory, postmodernism opposed the prospect of not as much of assumption, instead disagreeing that each knowledge and information is placed in context by its historical and cultural nature. What is the most relevant theory that could help understand our contemporary society? With the emerging signs of global problems, we know that every human being is has the responsibility to develop a good critical awareness of a range of complex issues and solutions that directly affect the daily live of the people.
It is very important to identify and examine of some of today’s most contentious issues and explain some of the many perspectives from which we can understood and relate. Controversial issues includes unemployment, scarcity of resources, separation of state and government, benefits and weaknesses of representative democracy, war of aggression, the legitimacy of civil obedience and action, animal rights, environmental problems, global warming, political and economic instability, and many other problems.
With regards to this problem, we shall reflect and supply an answer on how we formulate rational arguments supported by the theories mentioned previously and backed up by our conscious and rational thinking and informed theoretical positions which were helpful during the last decades. It is very useful that the theories mentioned before will be used as a supplement to the existing problems. The point of view of Marx is still relevant today since more and more workers are still on the margins of capitalist exploitation and oppression.
Even though there are a lot of changes because China and Russia is a growing developing country and is also a capitalist country that outgrows and competes with other big countries these days. Though there are a lot of Marxist thought, Marx theory was supported and historically justified by its own account and is still widely accepted by many social thinkers. His works on economic and philosophic manuscripts are one of the best written since he described the plight of the workers in such a way that the poor becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces the more his production increases in power and range (Kreis, 2000).
He emphasized that the worker becomes an increasingly cheaper product while the more goods and services he produces. With the growing cost of the goods, earnings are in direct proportion to the depreciation of men. According to Marx, “workforce creates not only possessions; it creates itself and the worker as a possession — and does so in the amount in which it creates possessions generally. ” This is actually the major issue to confront of because majority of the problem today is unemployment and scarcity of resources.
Unemployment where almost a relevant percentage of workers are only earning a minimum wage to survive and this is an epidemic especially in the third world countries and also in the developing countries. Because of the monopoly on the possessions and commodities produced by the workers, resources like food, raw materials, basic goods and services are in short supply due to its concentration to few and the incapability of the workers to acquire such resources.
This is a reality that still haunts the real world and the major impact is very evident and manifests in environmental problems, political and economic dominance, therefore, it is important to assess the international rules on workers rights and welfare as well as the rights of the people to free access to any resources. It is necessary that all people will advocate democracy and freedom by using all types of expression whether writing, lobbying, negotiation, mobilization, parliamentary, and to point here, many nations are still even believes in the power of revolution and people uprising.
AGGER, B. Critical Theory, Poststructrualism, Postmodernism: Their Sociological Relevance. FEAGIN, J. (2001) Liberation Sociology, Chapter One. FILER Jurgen Habermas: On Society and Politics. GUNASEKARA, V. Karl Marx as a Humanist. KREIS, S. (2000) Lectures on Modern European Intellectual History: Karl Marx LAGDAMEO, F. J. T. The Force of Reason over the Reason of Force: Jurgen Habermas and Critical Social Theory. LYE, J. (1999) Some Elements of Structuralism and its Application to Literary Theory.