There are a number of interpretations of the word “supervision”, but normally supervision involves the activities performed by supervisors in overseeing the productivity and development of employees who account directly to the supervisor. For instance, a first-level supervisor will supervise entry-level employees. Regarding the extent of an organization, middle-managers will supervise first-level supervisors, while chief executives will supervise the middle-managers, etc. thus supervision is a managing activity and supervisors have management roles in an organization.
(Rue and Byars, 2006) Occasionally, authors will exchange “leadership” and “supervision”. However, both activities are very much related. Supervision needs leadership. But leadership do not essentially have to entail supervision. Different theories and model have been put across t explain the various approaches used by supervisors and their role in an organization. This study paper will examine the theories and functions performed by supervisors in an organization or any other set up. Kadushin’s theory of supervision
Alfred Kadushin’s discusses theory of supervision in social work which he draws back to previous works of John Dawson (1926) who outlined the functions of supervision as follows: Administrative: the supervisor has a role of promoting and maintaining good standards of work, co-ordinating practice with policies of management, the guaranteeing of efficient and smooth-running office Educational: a supervisor has to ensure educational advancement of every individual worker on the organization in a way calculated to stir up his/her entirely to realize his/her potential of usefulness
Supportive: the upholding of harmonious working relations in an organisation, the promotion of organization spirit. (Kadushin, 1992) In addition to that, Salaman (1995) argues that supervisors should be concerned about both learning and performance of workers. The critically managerial aspects of supervisor s’ work is their duty to monitor and improve the work of other workers. Their managerial efficiency is determined through their capability to improve others work.
If supervisors are unable to offer this contribution to an organization then the will not be performing their duty, and thus they will not be adding any value to the organization. The only definitive justification of supervisors’ existence in an organization is the enhancement of their subordinates’ work. If supervisors fail in this way they fail as supervisors. In this manner supervisors are expect to build up relationships and working environments that enable workers to work collectively and respond to any changes.
Such “collective performance” entails having common objectives, common values, right structures, and continuous training and development (Marken & Payne, 1987) However there are some circumstances where these three elements are not all there. For instance, an organization might have fallen into a strong duty orientation with a specific worker. Which is quite common, thus a supervisor may possibly focus somewhat too strongly on supportive side. Nonetheless, is good to think about the three elements as interlinked or overlapping with each other
Supposing one element is removed then the process becomes possibly less rewarding to both the parties, and less successful. It is simple to simply identify managerial supervision with administrative supervision. Administration Kadushin constricts on Dawson’s concept and forwards his understanding of the three aspects in regards to the principal problem and the main goal. For administrative supervision the principal problem is mainly concerned with the proper, effective and suitable implementation of an organization procedures and policies.
The main goal is to make sure that policy and procedure are adhered to (Kadushin 1992) . The supervisor is given authority by the organization to supervise the work of the supervisees. This carries the following responsibility: • Both to make sure that organization policy are implemented; which means a management function – and also a parallel duty to facilitate supervisees to work well to their best. • It also involves a duty not to lose focus with the foundation for the organization of providing first-class service to clients who require the services or goods the organization is providing.
(Marken & Payne, 1987) Education In educational function the principal problem according to Kadushin (1992) is the worker lack of knowledge and/or ineptitude concerning the knowledge, skills and attitude needed to perform the job. The main goal is to drive out lack of knowledge and upgrading his/her skill. The classic method entailed with this duty is encouraging reflection on work, and exploring the work. Supervisees might be assisted by the supervisor to: 1. Understand the customer better
2. Become more conscious of their individual reaction and response to the customer 3. Comprehend the relations of how they are supposed to interact with consumers/clients 4. Observe how they interceded and the consequences of this interrelation 5. Explore other approaches of working with such a method and other similarly client circumstances (Marken & Payne, 1987) Support For supportive supervision the principal problem is an employee morale and also job satisfaction.
The main objective is to enhance morale of the employee and his/her job satisfaction (Kadushin 1992) Employees are viewed as facing a various job-related pressures which, unless the employees have assistance to tackle with them, these pressures could critically affect employees’ work and result to unsatisfactory services to clients. For the employee there is eventually the problem of “burnout”. Kadushin points out that the administration and educational forms of supervision centre on instrumental requirements, while supportive supervision is mainly concerned with expressive requirements (Kadushin 1992)
The supervisor looks for preventing the developing of likely stressful circumstances, removes an employee from stress, lessens stress encroaching on the employee, and assists him/her adjust to any stress. The supervisor is accessible and approachable any time, communicates assurance in the employee, offers perspective, and forgives failure when it is appropriate, approves and also shares responsibility for various decisions, presents opportunities for autonomous functioning and for possible success in duty achievement. (Kadushin 1992)