Intelligence is the root of our creativity, innovation, and exploration. But the exact contributions on the development of our intellectual brain or lack of it are still in obscurity. One main factor is our genetic makeup—which is basically who we are without any kind of outside influence. The second one is the environment, which can be divided into two sub factors: the shared environment that is common amongst others, and the non shared environment that is the environmental elements only available to a particular individual. How is Intelligence Measured?
Tests of measuring psychometric abilities are the most commonly used to assess intelligence in the clinical field. Intelligence batteries of this category tend to be interpreted with respect to a model of the structure of abilities that itself is based on findings from factor analysis. Four main types of tests will be discussed in brief detail, 1. Verbal 2. Non-verbal 3. Culture fair and 4. Group tests. Verbal tests which assess intelligence require the use and knowledge of vocabulary in the administration and performance of the test.
The evolution of intelligence testing will be shaped by developments in theory and in basic and applied research. Assessment with tests based on models other than psychometric ability e. g. neuropsychological processing models, personal competence models and dynamic assessment are becoming increasingly popular. Despite the current research however, there is much room for expansion before an all encompassing multi factorial model of intelligence and intelligence tests can be achieved and the ephemeral nature of current instruments for intellectual assessment must be recognized by all.
It is normal to assume that intelligence is also a complicated set of abilities based on individual personality. You could be intelligent in one area, while other person might be intelligent in other. That is why, as we can not compare our personalities, we can not compare our intelligences. Many of the people around the world would not agree with that scale of intelligence, since they are not ready to change their already build conception of intelligence. For them, to be intelligent means only to have knowledge. Now let’s look at some of the good aspects of intelligence.
It helps people, their thinking, choices, and personalities to be unique in a particular area. Can you imagine what would happen if all people had the same type of intelligence and respectfully the same approach to all things in life? Intelligence makes life interesting. Be intelligent towards the world and yourself and towards other people’s intelligences! There is no detailed and factual explanation one can make on the development of intelligence. The brain is still mysterious in its own way and researchers, with the help from technological advances, are on a current exploration endeavor.
But studies have shown us how our genetic makeup is the uncontrollable factor in our attempt for aptitude, yet it is very much influenced by our everyday ongoing life. Furthermore, we need to realize that there are many aspects to a person’s personal competence and that intelligence tests only reflect one. Our character and different forms of talent also matter. The carpenter or the artist creating art and beauty is as clever as the computer programmer or mathematician doing complicated algorithms; each in its own unique way.
Understanding that each human being, regardless of culture, has strengths and weaknesses will confirm the fact that anyone is capable of achieving great things. How Are Intelligence Tests Used In School Situations? Studies have shown that people with the same genes do have similar to identical IQ tests. In fact, intelligence test scores of identical twins have been as similar as those of the same person taking the same test twice. Correlations were significantly greater for identical twins than for fraternal twins, which in return were greater than normal siblings (Hughes and Cutting, 429).
These results indicate that individual differences in understanding of mind were influenced primarily by genetic factors and to some extent by non shared environmental factors. As the environment becomes more equal, the affect hereditability has on intelligence increases. If two children are raised in the same exact same environment, their IQ test would completely depend on their genes. But if they are raised in different environments, the percentage of how much heredity has to do with intelligence becomes unknown.
The genes become the essence of our being that enables that potential for that particular great talent, which will differ from individual to individual. Heredity, however, does not tell the whole story. The answers are found on where and how the child is raised in the world and the resources that are made available to him. Any individual, from any race, culture, or ethnicity can be born with exceptional intelligence potential. However, if the mind is not provided with the correct tools, there is no assurance the mind will find an alternate route to achieve its full potential.
Another part of exposing the mind to greatness is somewhat the responsibly of the parents and the people around. For example, learning from mistakes can enable a child to lead better social and intellectual interactions, therefore foster further development of the mind. Intelligence is an important factor in determining one’s future success but one cannot judge solely the child’s economic status and related criteria. Even strong heritability within groups would not eliminate the influence that the environment, others, and his or her values will have on determining how the mind will develop.
How Do You Think Intelligence Tests Should Be Used In School Situations? What is the purpose of intelligence tests in school? They help teachers and psychologists diagnose numerous learning difficulties such as cognitive deficits, learning disabilities, processing disorders, attention disorders and mental retardation. To accurately identify any of these, the tests should be conducted in conjunction with other psychological evaluations as well as physical testing. Combined, these tests help professionals build strategies best suited to help these children function and progress in learning.
An individualized education plan (IEP) can be set into place to address dysfunctions or disabilities. We all know there are varying levels of society generally having different levels of education accompanying them. We have what we call the highly educated and we have what we refer to as the “uneducated” and all levels in between. Do intelligence tests taint the “uneducated” when their scores are lower than the higher educated? This would be true if we expected the lower educated to score the same as the higher educated.
Therefore, there is no bias in respect to this view. We are also concerned about some who can’t take tests or do not do well on tests. Dare we say there may be a cognitive dysfunction here that may have gone unidentified? Even so, oral tests can be administered when necessary to determine the intelligence level of one who can’t take written test. Point being, these tests are not biased because the system of tests are designed to determine the true intelligence level of some by incorporating approaches designed for the individual’s special needs.
As far as a person’s environment affecting their intelligence level, we don’t want to assume that someone who grew up in the projects and had very little education will score as high as someone who grew up in “high society” well educated. (Suoboda, 46-50) A person who takes the test with full intention of doing well will do as well as they can. If they are not mentally or physically ready, then the person invalidates the test, the test doesn’t become invalid.