Intelligence is the information related to a foreign unit, sometimes an opponent, plus agencies concerned with collection of such information. It is closely joined with the intelligence cycle, a process where raw information is obtained, transformed into intelligence and distributed to the suitable consumers. The intelligence cycle, as it was labeled in the United States Senate hearings of the Church Committee in the mid 1970s, has some steps, called planning and direction; collection; processing and production; and dissemination.
In this process, the collection requirements based on national security threats are extended and intelligence is composed, examined and dispersed to many consumers. Sometimes consumers provide opinions on the finished intelligence products that can be used to improve any part of the intelligence cycle to make certain that consumers are getting the intelligence they require taking proper actions (Todd Masse, 2006).
The traditional form of intelligence is differentiated from non-traditional form and that can be related to protecting national security. Many theories about intelligence have emerged in the twentieth century and determined by hereditary factors, the environment or both. As the development of the methods for assessment occurred, expertise theorized about the measurability of intelligence. Its field is known as psychometrics (Encyclopedia of Children’s Health).
Security intelligence is the activity, which defensive police forces must contain before taking any action against the individual ill doer (Todd Masse, 2006). The intelligence Services Act 1994 established the Intelligence and Security Committee (ISC), which provides the Security Service, GCHQ and parliamentary oversight of SIS. This committee checks administration, policy and the expenditure of the three Agencies.
It has right to use the highly classified information and functions within the ‘ring of secrecy’. The committee requires reporting to the prime minister annually and also gives adhoc reports to the prime minister time to time. Now a days Intelligence and Security policy matters are one of the greatest growing areas of academic and public concern, especially since 9/11 and the war in Iraq. Following are some programs that highlight the courses related to intelligence and security services:
Intelligence and Security Informatics (IEEE ISI-2005)- The past three years have seen significant interest and progress made in national/ international security research, which is especially in the development of methodologies and tools to enable analysts and researchers to proceed the state of knowledge by using computer science and information technology that is in the field of terrorism research, intelligence analysis and security related public policy.
It is believed that like other sciences of ‘medical informatics’ and ‘bioinformatics’there is an essential requirement to develop the science of ‘intelligence and security informatics’- the study of the development and use of advanced information technologies, computer science for national/ international and homeland security related applications by an integrated technological, organizational and policy based approach (Atlanta Georgia, 2005). The first and second symposium on Intelligence and Security Informatics were held in Tucson, Arizona.
These meetings offered a stimulating forum for discussions among former different communities, academic researchers and intelligence experts. The IEEE-2005 was held in May 2005 in Atlanta, Georgia. It included a new track on Terrorism informatics, which is a new stream of research. It presented state-of-the-art terrorism research by foremost terrorism research experts and institutions (Atlanta Georgia, 2005). ISI-2005 will include new research from NSF sponsored Information Technology Research (ITR) projects that focus on national and homeland security applications. Intelligence Studies at U. K. Universities:
The study of intelligence is now a firmly established part of the modern and contemporary history curriculum in the United Kingdom and it is growing. The study of intelligence by historians has been developing over the last thirty years. Archival releases of government records show the importance of intelligence to domestic and imperial policy, the making of foreign policy and of war have greatly encouraged historians interest in it. The greater directness of intelligence issues has more interest on the part of political scientists (Paul Madrell, 2006). Big steps are being taken to develop the study of intelligence further.
Birmingham University, under the influence of Scott Lucas is soon to establish an institute of foreign policy, media and culture, which will study the role of intelligence in the making of foreign policy (Paul Madrell, 2006). Philip Murphy, at Reading University School of history is trying to establish a muti disciplinary center on intelligence. He has also planned to introduce a series of seminar on the subject. King’s London’s War Studies Department recently introduced an MA degree in Security and intelligence Studies. St. Andrew’s also plans to expand its undergraduate teaching by introducing a course on related subject.
Brunel’s School of International Studies will introduce an MA degree in Security and Intelligence Studies (Paul Madrell, 2006). Teaching of intelligence covers a wide thematic, temporal and geographical range. There are many students engaged in the study of intelligence. Some universities like, The University of Wales, Aberystwyth, Kings College London etc offer undergraduate and post graduate programs specifically in intelligence and security. Some other universities offer on teaching of intelligence as part of courses on international history or security and as a part of their PhD supervision.
Today more than ever before national governments, international agencies and most internationals corporations have an increasing need of staff with a strong gasp on intelligence and security issues. They can also show first level skills of research and assessment. The international respected scholars of Brunel center for International Security and Studies do the teaching practice of the course, which offers a unique opportunity for practical policy oriented graduate studies of international issues.
It is valuable for the individuals who seek to go into security oriented careers in both the private sectors as well as the individuals who are involved in the security professions and wish further qualification and professional enchantment. The typical feature of the course lies in its combining the rigorous studies of intelligence and security policy studies with practical opportunity to develop intelligence skills through case studies and simulation exercises dealing with intelligence analysis.
Course Modules: Intelligence Concepts: Theory and Policy: It deals with the essential concepts and issues of what intelligence is and its role in government and decision-making. It introduces the basic concepts of intelligence studies, a variety of sources of intelligence available to national governments, and studies those sources, sources of intelligence success and failure and intelligence needs in the current environment.