Ideologiesand Methods in Curriculum Development
Ideologiesand Methods in Curriculum Development
Social Efficiency Ideology assumes that involves the performance ofspecific activities as much as human life varies. The centralassumption of Social Efficiency is that change in human behavioroccurs within action-reaction, fairly direct cause-effect orstimulus-response context. The concept employs education as the wayto prepare for life, and so it develops those specific abilitiesEducation makes one for both life and the conduction of the unique orroutine activities (Schiro, 2012). The exploration of the affairsrelated to these activities such as social problems discovers thenumerous activities that need learning. These events show attitudes,abilities, appreciation, forms and habits of the knowledge needed.The important roles in Social Efficiency Ideology are learning theconcept, learning experience and assessment.
One of the predominant features of Social Efficiency Ideology isphrasing of objectives to reflect on nature of man. In essence, theparticular behaviors that an individual performs express the humannature in them. The human being conception along with behavior bearsthese specific skills. Schiro (2012) contends that the SocialEfficiency Ideology sees education as the process of changing aperson’s behavior. This section upholds educational objectives torepresent the changes in behavior that a learning institution seeksto bring to learners. The third feature of Social Efficiency Ideologyis curriculum goals set to facilitate the learning or education. Thispart allows a statement of targets in a form that influences theefficient scientific development of educational experiences.
Social Efficiency Ideology informs curriculum design and assessmentthrough the adoption of its principal features on education as theaccessible way of changing behavior. The concept notifies socialeducators to define the goals of lessons as the first step in lessonimplementation. Effective change of human behavior through educationbegins by seeking the purpose. This section sets up objectives and isessential for guiding all other activities of the curriculum design.Furthermore, Social Efficiency Ideology offers a frame for provingeducational experience. The concept guides curriculum designers toidentify the means to achieve the objectives (Schiro, 2012). TheSocial Efficiency Ideology shapes the curriculum design by promptingsocial educators to consider the manner in which educationalexperiences become efficiently organized. Clearly defined behavioralobjectives plan to influence mastery of skill guides the teachers tomanage learning instructions as well as appropriate educationalstrategies. Fourthly, Social Efficiency Ideology informs curriculumdesign and assessment by mandating to analyze whether the educationalpurpose meets accomplishments.
Social Efficiency Ideology employs education to shape an individual’sspecial abilities for utilization in the society. This concept viewsa school as the factory where the teacher is the factory worker thechild is the raw material, and the adult is the finished product. Theschool, therefore, provides the learner with the necessary andappropriate skills and behavior. For example, the Pathways inTechnology Early College High School in Brooklyn, New York intendedto maximize the efficiency in computer engineering as applied in thepresent day business surroundings. The school designed a curriculumbased on theory and practice having modern principles in scientificmanagement to equalize and enhance success in acquiring thisparticular ability.
The theory lessons focus on advancing the current engineeringpractices. The school adopted a flipped classroom to facilitateprojects and discussions. In addition, it incorporates a standardtest to measure each of the students’ skills at the end of theterm. This curriculum design assists the students further indisplaying their skills as well as putting them in action. Theprogram rewards six top students with full sponsorship for associatedegree to extend competencies in the field. During the higherlearning period, the college or university tests the feasibility ofthe students’ project before implementing it to benefit the entiresociety.
The Learner-Centered Ideology focuses on an individual’s concernand needs but not on societal needs and academic fields. This modelcurriculum involves units of work, context, and surroundings wherelearners find meaning for themselves through interacting with otherstudents, teachers, things and ideas (Schiro, 2012). The socialeducators have the task of creating these units of work, context andsurroundings targets to stimulate growth in people as they comeacross their life purposes. One key feature that identifies with thisconcept is that it positions schools, as places to enjoy and developintrinsically regarding own innate natures. The idea further assertsthat every person has their unique capabilities for growth.
The ideology views people as the origin of curriculum content. Forthis concept, the objective of education links to the increase of aperson’s each with unique academics abilities, emotional, physicalattributes and socially and it considers it appropriate end to thecurriculum. It is essential to note that the Learner-CenteredIdeology mandates treating the growth concept as the centralendeavors. The educators’ objectives align to learner’s growthregarding conformity within the legislation. In addition, it viewseducation to revolve around drawing out the inherent individualscapabilities because potential growth lies within them. The peopleinteract with their physical social and intellectual environments ina unique way that similarly results in personal growth andconstruction of life purpose.
Key featuresof Hilda Taba Model:
Teaching-learning units provide the foundation for the curriculum design.
The curriculum emerges from the instructional learning strategies.
The curriculum model evolved applies to numerous types of curricula
The curriculum has uses in various kinds of school levels and settings: elementary school, middle school, and high school (Lunenburg, 2011). This means that the model is multifaceted.
The model comprises of an organization and relationships among, five jointly interactive elements that are objectives, content, learning experiences, teaching strategies, and evaluative measures.
The model contains some innovative aspects that specially determine and organize the objectives, content, learning experiences and teaching strategies.
The model presents factors that may affect its internal workings such as community nature in which the school locates, school life, policies of the school district, personal characteristics of teachers involved and the population of the learners.
Strengthsof Hilda Taba Model:
Provides model of curriculum by giving high attention to learning objectives to establish the sense of purpose and inclusions
Provides gifted student with a start over of concept thinking before proceeding into deeper understanding (Lunenburg, 2011)
The model centers on fair questions rather that wrong or right questions thereby facilitating subject knowledge
The design promotes abstract thinking to widen areas of study as it identifies student’s needs
Offers easy access to student learning through linear development approach
Notes that learning instructors are the ones aware of the learners needs, therefore, see curriculum as the plan for learning
Gives teachers a greater role in implementing and developing curriculum, therefore, facilitate conductive learning
Weaknesses ofHilda Taba Model:
Taba’s instructional strategies model is a little more theoretical
Require responsible individuals for developing interest and passion in learning
The approach can be difficult for non-gifted students to understand and can encourage student forgetting memorized concepts within shorts of periods
The model could be complex to apply for non-uniform classes given the use of all subjects
The approach makes learners focus on the teacher as their mediator while they should instead look at the teacher as a lecturer (Lunenburg, 2011)
Students fail to make connections between learned concepts and new information due to the provision of much factual information presented by the model
Key featuresof Ralph Tyler Model:
The learning institution should seek to the purposes, goals or objectives to attain
Directs educators to determine educational experiences that are likely to accomplish the aims of schooling (Cho & Trent, 2005)
Guides lesson instructors to efficiently organize the educational experiences so as to achieve efficiency
Points out to educators to evaluate the manner in which the purposes, goals or objectives in focus to attainment
A program curriculum sequences the set of learning experiences each standing for the behavior set for lessons. The model engineer shapes learners through reinforcing or rewarding basing on the idea that specific stimulus results in desired outcomes
Strengthsof Ralph Tyler Model:
The means of curriculum planning is structured making it easy to implement and follow
The curriculum represents a logic display of educational ideas
The detailed structure grants the means to effectiveness in learning
Provides a good place for educators to begin with clearly stated objectives
Simple leaner approach of developing behavioral goals and defined purposes
Involves active participation of learners and improves teaching and learning outcomes
The organized design increases learning efficiency having objectives stated and lessons sequentially planned (Cho & Trent, 2005)
Learning experiences can take into accounts a student developmental stage such as age and abilities
The provision for evaluation factor helps educators to look for ways to advance learning instructions
Weaknesses ofRalph Tyler Model:
The model can fail some teachers given that not all can accurately consider the order of difficulty when planning lesson instruction
A replacement educator might not be able to use the same material because of the level of unique lesson plans and objectives
There is restriction of the curriculum to a rigid range of learner’s knowledge and skills
It is time-consuming to construct the behavioral objectives
The models interpret the goals narrowly and cannot plainly declare value acquiring processes, critical thinking and problem-solving
Controlling learning experiences through manipulation of learners surrounding may evoke undesirable outcomes (Cho & Trent, 2005)
The learning experiences are within the individual and not completely within the teachers’ power of selection
Cho, J., & Trent, A. (2005). " Backward" CurriculumDesign and Assessment: What Goes Around Comes Around, or Haven`t WeSeen This Before?. Taboo: The Journal of Culture andEducation, 9(2), 105-122.
Lunenburg, F. (2011). Curriculum Development: Inductive Models.Schooling, 2(1), 1-8.
Schiro, M. S. (2012). Curriculum theory: Conflicting visionsand enduring concerns. Sage.