How Does Transport Provision and Infrastructure in Rural Northern Ireland By, essay

How Does Transport Provision and Infrastructure in Rural Northern Ireland 44

How Does Transport Provision and Infrastructure in Rural NorthernIreland


Unit Title


Introduction 3

1.1. Background of the Research 3

1.2. Problem Statement 6

1.3. Significance of the Study 6

1.4. Aims and Objectives 7

1.5. Research Questions 8

Literature Review 8

Research Methodology 18

2.1. Program Planning 18

2.2. Survey Development 18

2.3. Survey Deployment 19

2.4. Data Analysis 20

2.5. Reporting 20

Conclusions 21

Negative economic impacts of infrastructure 25

Negative Environmental impacts of Infrastructure 26

Social Negative impacts of infrastructure 27

• General increase in the cost of living 28

• Environmental degradation 28

Time Saving 28

Complexities in Calculations 29

Cost Passed on to Consumers 30

Noise Level Data 30

Treatment and Control Areas 31

Use of Public Funds 31

References 32


    1. Background of the Research

Transport infrastructure, as an organiser of corporeal networks inthe middle of people and organisations, has dependably been a keypart in guaranteeing that request inside of an economy can bedischarged and changed into development (Great Britain, 1909).Besides, towards the end of the twentieth century and into thetwenty-first century, queries around the manageability of priormodels of expansionary development and improvement prompted anadditional spotlight on how transport infrastructure can powerfullychange officially existing spots, as opposed to anticipating andaccommodating sprawling development into new places [ CITATION Kam15 l 1033 ].Additionally, open transport has a crucial part in the economy andgroup of Northern Ireland. It can be said that a compelling opentransport framework can enhance the nearby economy by unitinglabourers and employments (In Boyd, 2015). In addition, it canlikewise enhance environment by advancing a more manageable type oftransport than the auto, which can decrease contamination levels andactivity blockage and in addition portability of more seasonedindividuals, provincial occupants and those with inabilities and inaddition better general infrastructure (Great Britain, 1900).

Figure 1: Map ofNorthern Ireland [ CITATION Gal111 l 1033 ]

It has been watched that road ventures have a tendency to positivelyaffect property costs, in spite of the fact that impacts rely on uponseparation to the undertaking and the impacts can likewise changeafter some time (In Boyd, 2015). Additionally the developmentventures, better infrastructure and great transportation are likewisethe main sources of development in property costs. Plus, in theNorthern Ireland even in the rustic zones where transportationimprovement is in advancement, the property costs are liable to beexpanded [ CITATION Gal111 l 1033 ]. Then again, transportdisadvantage is a key determinant of the levels of access that aredelighted in by people. This has essential outcomes for support inkey exercises, for example, training, vocation: furthermore access tomerchandise and administrations (Great Britain &amp Great Britain,2010). Furthermore, in Northern Ireland no investigations of thelinkages between transport access and support have been attempted inrustic territories, albeit restricted investigations of travel timein various country regions has been embraced. It is noticed that inBelfast work has been embraced on socially essential administrations,open transport administrations and levels of access coming aboutbecause of changes in administration structure. Besides, work for theCommunity Relations Council has taken a gander at the impact ofisolation on transport while the General Consumer Council forNorthern Ireland has taken a gander at transport destitution.

It can be said that the RDP for Northern Ireland concentratesessentially on protecting and upgrading biological communities,neighbourhood improvement in rustic territories and expanding thecompetiveness of the horticultural sustenance division. Ranchers willget backing to put twelve percent of the Northern Irish farmlandunder contract to protect biodiversity and twelve-hundred hectares ofbackwoods would be planted to moderate environmental change. Inaddition, just about twenty-percent of Northern Irish homesteads willprofit by venture backing to rebuild and modernise theirorganisations [ CITATION Kam15 l 1033 ]. In addition, ten percent ofranches and a quarter century of horticultural sustenanceorganisations would get backing to grow short supply chains,neighborhood markets and complete special exercises. Appropriately,learning and development backing is additionally given a considerablemeasure of consideration and the project would make just aboutthirty-thousand spots on instructional classes for agriculturists andother rustic organisations. In addition, the RDP would likewisebolster neighbourhood advancement by means of LEADER Local ActionGroups all through the region and enhance access to essentialadministrations for twelve percent of the provincial populace (GreatBritain, 1900).

In addition, the subjects of transport disadvantage have a repeatingdesign all through the centre gatherings completed. In addition,particular issues still exist, regardless of the improvement of theRural Transport Fund and its related activities that have gone someapproach to lighten these issues (Great Britain &amp Great Britain,2010). Furthermore, the mind-boggling after-effect of this phase ofthe exploration is that much stays to be done and numerousindividuals in ranges with higher or lower than normal autopossession and additionally visit or rare open transport procurementstill experience the ill effects of transport disadvantage and socialavoidance therefore [ CITATION Gal111 l 1033 ].

    1. Problem Statement

Transport infrastructure ventures are among the biggest openconsumption programs around the world. Moreover, these undertakingsfor the most part impacts and prompts more noteworthy costs oflodging. Infrastructure development has a direct impact on thehousing prices this why it is important to recognise that in what waytransportation provisions and infrastructure in the rural areas ofNorthern Ireland effects property market.

    1. Significance of the Study

Transport is essential to the well-working of monetary exercises anda key to guaranteeing social prosperity and union of populaces. Inaddition, it guarantees regular versatility of individuals and iscritical to the creation and dispersion of merchandise. In addition,satisfactory infrastructure is a crucial precondition for transportframeworks. Moreover, in their attempt to encourage transport, in anycase, leaders in governments and worldwide associations facetroublesome difficulties. As needs be, these incorporate the presenceof physical boundaries or deterrents, for example, deficient orinsufficient transport infrastructures, bottlenecks and missingconnections, and additionally absence of assets to evacuate them. Inaddition, taking care of these issues is not a simple undertaking.Additionally, it requires activity with respect to the legislaturesconcerned, activities that are facilitated with different governmentsat global level (Scotland, 2006).

It is said that property value impacts of transport infrastructurehave gotten impressive consideration in the scholarly writing. Inaddition, amongst different reasons in light of the fact that, takingafter bid‐rent hypothesis,land qualities and property costs ought to reflect any expansion inprofitability or family unit utility identified with openness andalong these lines qualify as a characteristic beginning stage of awelfare investigation of financial impacts of transportinfrastructure (Scotland, 2006). All things considered, propertyvalue impacts of transport infrastructure and specifically urban railframeworks are well‐documented.The Rural Development Program (RDP) for Northern Ireland was formallyreceived by the European Commission laying out nation`s needs to usethe a large number of open cash that is accessible for the seven yearperiod till 2020 (Stationery Office &amp Great Britain, 2002).Additionally, new transport infrastructure might increment privateproperty estimations because of enhanced openness and expansionbusiness property estimations because of enhanced availability andconceivable agglomeration advantages.

    1. Aims and Objectives

The aim of the research is to discover the difference in price inproperty in rural Northern Ireland based on transport provisions andinfrastructure. The objectives of the research are as follows:


  • To outline rural areas and identify the infrastructure networks available

  • To identify where there is a transport disadvantage and how infrastructure provisions affected property market prices

  • To illustrate the issues through selected desk based practice examples

  • To recommend a set of guidelines to improve transport provisions

    1. Research Questions
  • What are the rural areas and the infrastructure networks available

  • To identify where is at a transport disadvantage and where has good transport and infrastructure provisions and how does the property market differ

  • What are the issues through selected desk based practice examples

  • How the set of guidelines can improve transport provisions

Literature Review

Transport, like any form of infrastructure plays a massive role inthe process of economic recovery (Stationery Office &amp GreatBritain, 2002). At the same time, the nature of transportationnetwork will go a long way into determining the market prices for thehousing facilities. Various locations across the globe have beenbeneficiaries of the development of infrastructural facilities(DRI/McGraw-Hill &amp United States, 1994). The prices of housinghas elevated over the past as a result of the nature of growth oftransportation networks within such locations (United States, 1781).

The kind of changes in the prices of the commodities depends on aseries of factors such as the locations and the legislationssurrounding such changes. According to the Royal Town PlanningInstitute (2014), transport is a major factor in determining the dataelements that have long lasting effect on the social and economicwelfare of the population (Great Britain &amp Great Britain, 2010).In the United Kingdom, decisions made regarding the transportinvestment is passive as most individuals prefer alternative means ofinvestments that are likely to culminate in higher returns for theorganization (United States, 1781). There are seven major challengesthat have been identified with regard to the challenges facing theUnited Kingdom and investment in the transportation sector. Inaddition to this, recommendations have been provided for eachchallenge that faces the transport investment sector in the UnitedKingdom (McDonag, 2002).

There is enough evidence to indicate the lack of consensus about thenature o delivery of infrastructure into the United Kingdom (Currieet al., 2007). In this case, the challenge is experienced across allstrategic levels. The recommendations about this matter require thatthe policy makers must have a visionary narrative that highlights themassive advantages of transport and other infrastructural led schemes(University ePress, 2007). The development of effective strategies bythe policy makers will culminate in improved economic performances,and this will form the basis through which individuals across variousplatforms will be made aware of the benefits associated with improvedinfrastructural structures (University ePress, 2007).

Figure 2: Housing Pricesin the United Kingdom (Royal Town Planning Institute,2014)

Another problem that has been experienced in this case refers to thelack of joined up thinking as to the means through which theprovision of infrastructure can be used to tackle problems in othersectors (Murray, 1993). Currently, the costs incurred in thecompletion of projects look unpalatable and as such individuals failto identify the far-reaching benefits that can be achieved throughinvestments in the transport sector (Willis, 2007). Therecommendation to this challenge hinges on the need for thegovernment to operate in a way that will enable the integration oftransport sector schemes (Royal Town Planning Institute, 1973).

There is a general lack of broad vision for the intermodal transportstrategies from analysists as well as the policy makers. Thisculminates in infrastructure that could otherwise be used todeveloping sustainable future growth not being taken intoconsideration. In this case, the individuals tasked with the planningand designing future transport infrastructure must facilitate theintegration of all the individual schemes into his final plan (RoyalTown Planning Institute, 1973). These schemes might include thosethat relate to the various areas such as national, sub-regional, andlocal (Murray, 1993).

Based on the general model of infrastructure deliveries,infrastructure developers and authorities are incentivised (McDonagh,2001). As such, they are more interested in the maximization of theirorganizational interests at the expense of communicating andcooperating to facilitate the delivery of common benefits toindividuals across various locations (Environment &amp Planning,1983). This problem can be rectified through corporation among thekey delivery partners in addition to the stakeholders within thetransport sector (McDonagh, 2001). The level of the corporationbetween such groups can be attributed to the successful delivery ofinfrastructure-led development (McDonag, 2002).

For a project to succeed there should be a lack of cost-risk fear andthe need for power and accountability. The absence of the latter atthe non-national level will result in a disincentive to both thelocal and regional areas that might be in need of the infrastructureto transform their localities (Environment &amp Planning, 1983). Torectify such issues, the role of the public sector leadership andrevolving funds should be emphasized (Great Britain, 2007).

Though the government has initiated limited appraisal concerns acrossvarious forms of investments, infrastructural projects that couldunlock economic growth and development continue to be held backthereby curtailing economic growth and development (Great Britain,2007). Both local and national policy has a role in ensuring strictadherence to the goals and objectives of the investment process(McDonagh, 2001). As such, it important to establish ways throughwhich a limited cost-benefit analysis is used as a guide toinfrastructure investment decision rather than the final arbiter(Willis, 2007).

According to the Department of Regional Development (DRD), theregional development strategy has been established as a means ofensuring the future development of North Ireland (Great Britain &ampGreat Britain, 2012). The document contains the achievements thatshould have been witnessed by 2035. The strategy forms the basis onwhich both the public and private investors undertake to accomplishtheir investments in Northern Ireland (Great Britain, 2007). Thisstrategy is important since it influences the programme forGovernment (PfG), the Investment Strategy for Northern Ireland(ISNI), council’s decisions and investments, department’sinvestments, and investments made by the private sector (EuropeanCommission, 1994). The document identifies the importance ofdeveloping a regional development strategy. In this document that wasdeveloped by the Northern Ireland Executive, four key elements wereidentified (Environment &amp Planning, 1983). One of them was aspatial framework that divided the region into five major components.This form of division was based on the functions and geography (GreatBritain &amp Great Britain, 2012). The second key element wasguidance at two levels regional level that was to be applied to allparts of the region as well as specific guidance that would only beapplicable to specific to each element of the spatial framework(Firmino, Duarte &amp Ultraman, 2011). A Regionally SignificantEconomic Infrastructure was also identified as critical by theexecutives (European Commission, 1994). This section identified theimportance of considering strategic infrastructure projects. Thefinal part of the core concepts referred to the implementation stageand how the stage would be accomplished (Currie et al., 2007).

Figure 3: Major RuralRoads in Northern Ireland (Environment &amp Planning,1983)

The development of transport and other infrastructure influenceregional development (Morphet, 2016). Improvements in the transportsector impact on the productive sector through both the product andlabour markets. With regards to the former, improvements intransportation and other infrastructural structures, firms benefitfrom the cost reductions as well as minimization in the logisticschain (Institute of Highways and Transport (Great Britain) &ampInstitute of Highway Incorporated Engineer (Great Britain), 1998).Individual companies are also likely to take advantage due tospillover effects. Though there is a common consensus on the benefitsof improved transport on businesses and the economy, such benefitswill depend on the regional distributions and the level of thetransportation costs (Morphet, 2016).

According to research, transportation improvements are a safer policyinstrument for promoting local development in comparison to otherplans. The economic success that has been witnessed in Ireland isresponsible for the tighter labour markets. Additionally, thisachievement is can also be attributed to the emergence ofagglomeration diseconomies as in the case of Dublin (Institute ofHighways and Transport (Great Britain) &amp Institute of HighwayIncorporated Engineer (Great Britain), 1998).

Figure 4: ComparingHouse Prices in London and Northern Ireland (RoyalTown Planning Institute, 2014)

The relationship between transport and regional development withregards to the housing market has continued to be discussed acrossdifferent platforms (Tierney, 2000). The question regarding the roleof transport in the distribution of economic resources acrosscountries and regions depends on various variables (Syms, 2010). Bothfirms and individuals can be beneficiaries of investment intransport.

Transport also plays a massive role in economic development. Thehousing industry is one of the integral areas in the economy thatmassively benefits from the growth in transport networks and otherinfrastructural structures (Eklund, 2012). However, the issue ofconcern is in regard to the difference in the rates of growth. Thoughall parts of Northern Ireland might have sufficient road networks,the rate of economic developments within such locations still remainssignificantly different. The difference in the rate of growth has ledto the emergence of the new growth theory (Firmino, Duarte &ampUltraman, 2011). This theory argues that any substantive improvementscan only be witnessed in instances where enhanced rate of productionhas integrated technological changes (Eklund, 2012). This theorytherefore explains the process of endogenous growth. The concept ofexternalities is also introduced into the argument. It relates to theboth technology and pecuniary (Institute of Highways and Transport(Great Britain) &amp Institute of Highway Incorporated Engineer(Great Britain), 1998). In case of the former, the actions of onefirm are beneficial to another one. An example that featuresprominently in this case is the spill over effect of knowledge fromone company to another (DRI/McGraw-Hill &amp United States, 1994).Therefore, in case transport projects are attracted to a particularlocation as a result of high technology, then other enterprises andindividuals will also be invited by the existing pool of knowledgefrom which they can extensively benefit from (CongressionalInformation Service, 1970). Consider a scenario whereby transportimprovement draws a new firm into the market, other companiesengaging in supply of commodities may also be invited to such alocation with the primary aim of demand. The housing industry willwitness a substantial elevation of the request due to the need toaccommodate the influx of individuals into such an area (Willis,2007).

According to existing literature, the impacts of lower transportationcosts on the patterns of socialization are extensively difficult toestablish (Rydin, 2013). The reduction in the costs of transportationwill have two major effects the location of production will shift towhere the costs incurred are cheaper (International Institute forEnvironment and Development, 1976). In this case, there will beincreased demand for the houses. The increased demand of commoditiesculminates in a corresponding rise in the prices charged (Artuso &ampBoston Development Authority, 1984). However, the minimal costs oftransportation also result in the economies of scale. This is becausethe production activities are moved to a common location. Regions aretherefore likely to either gain or lose depending on the location andthe level of technological advancements in such locations(International Institute for Environment and Development, 1976).

Various issues impact rural development in Northern Ireland. The mostprominent of all is housing. Others include agriculture and seafishing, health environment, regional development, wider economy, andeducation (International Institute for Environment and Development,1976). There are a series of housing issues that have been identifiedto affect rural development. Housing fitness is high in ruralNorthern Ireland and other isolated locations within the country(Eklund, 2012). Additionally, the replacement grants schemes can onlybe replaced under exceptional circumstances. The provision oftransport also contributes to the housing issues due to lack ofhousing provision. Based on available data, the number of housewaiting list seeking homes continues to increase over the years(Rydin, 2013).

The prices of the houses have also compromised the affordability ofsuch assets. Even though there have been a massive reduction on theprices of housing units in comparison to the earlier times, theaverage costs of houses are still high and cannot be afforded byseveral individuals who are on average wages. The fact that the ruralareas attract tourist has acted against the other dwellers since theprices of accommodation have elevated beyond the reach of theindigenous community. Planning failures have also contributed to thehousing issues in Northern Ireland as the implementation of the PPS21that provides a framework that facilitates sustainable development ofthe countryside has failed to pick up effectively (Geer &ampInstitute of Public Administration (Ireland), 2003). To alter the badfortunes of the program, there is the need to work around thedispersed rural community (DRC) classification and use it todetermine ways through which the fortunes of the rural areas can beimproved.

Figure 5: M1: Belfast toDuncannon (European Commission,1994)

The concept of fuel poverty also features prominently when analyzinghousing issues facing Northern Ireland (Bochel &amp Powell, 2016).The rural locations of Northern Ireland have some of the highest fuelpoverty rate in the United Kingdom. 44% of the households in ruralNorthern Ireland fall under the fuel poverty level. As such, theseindividuals spend 10% of their household incomes on fuel (Rydin,2013). Some of the departments that are tasked with addressing thehousing situation in the rural areas of Northern Ireland includeNorthern Ireland Housing Executive as part of DSD, DOE in relation toPPS21, DSD in relation to Fuel Poverty, and DARD in relation tospecific rural Fuel Poverty contribution through the Rural AntiPoverty and Social Exclusion Framework (Congressional InformationService, 1970). On the other hand NIHE’s rural Action Plan raisesand quantifies many of these and others issues but requiresresourcing to address them (Syms, 2010).

Research Methodology

The basic intend of research methods is to deliver a researcharrangement along with comprehensive inscription about the researchand the procedure in which it is betrothed. In addition, thestrategic determination of research methods is to appraise the designthat will be utilised, the approach the study will perform, andmethods of collecting data as well as data analysis approaches(Kothai, 2005).

2.1. Program Planning

Several design approaches are executed while conducting a research,however, for this considered research descriptive design will beused. As indicated by McMillan and Schumacher [CITATION McM14
l 1033 ]examination designs are based on exploratory, descriptive and logicaldesigns while of course, it is further explained that the designs areeither descriptive or casual. Consequently, in like manner, it wasclarified that the uniqueness in the designs are a direct result ofthe many-sided quality and in addition nature (Polkinghorne, 1983).Moreover, as an illustration, the descriptive study is about eachsole particulars of the study containing its place, sort, and inaddition limit, quality and etc.

2.2. Survey Development

Numerous strategies are utilised while conducting research and theyare selected by recognising the structure and nature of the research.Therefore, by considering the nature of this research survey strategywill be utilised in which questionnaire will be conducted. Thisstrategy is used because with the survey strategy a large populationis covered and it helps in generating best outcomes.

2.3. Survey Deployment

Survey strategy is known to be a useful strategy in carrying outresearch as it provides a researcher with first-hand informationwhich ultimately helps in developing accurate results. In order toget these results primary data will be collected through an onlinequestionnaire survey from the people within the rural areas ofNorthern Ireland (Polkinghorne, 1983). The questionnaire will be aclosed ended questionnaire of twenty questions and will be conductedwith 200 people by the use of random sampling method.

For this research both primary and secondary data collection methodswill be used.

Primary Data Collection Method

This type of data collection is very essential as it provides theuser with first-hand information regarding the subject matter(Pathak, 2008). Primary data is collected by the researcher for thepurpose of the study in which the researcher intends to generate newoutcomes to state the reliability of the research. In addition, thistype of data collection is known as immediate information which isnot published earlier. Although there are different approaches ofgathering primary data for instance online surveys, observations,conducting interviews and surveys as well case studies, nevertheless,by observing the determination and nature of research, primary datacollection will be utilised in this research study (Kirch &ampSullivan, 1992).

Secondary Data Collection Method

Secondary data is renowned as the information which is congregatedfrom the work and findings of someone else and is not gathered by theresearcher himself. It is known as secondary or second hand datawhich is utilised for the purpose of providing difference from theprimary findings when conducting a primary research. This type ofinformation is assimilated from the sources that are dispensedpreviously. Furthermore, it is collected from other publishedarticles for example, daily papers, news articles or journal articlesover internet. In the present research, initially several journalarticles will be carefully chosen which will give emphasis on thetransportation and infrastructure of rural Northern Ireland and theimpact it has on the property market (Scruggs &ampMastropieri, 2006).

2.4. Data Analysis

The two types of data analysis methods are quantitative andqualitative methods. The qualitative examination is particularly inperspective of social affair people`s near and dear information, forinstance, suggestions, understandings, elucidation in subject that topropel the theories possibly. It is a basic methodology for findinginitial of a subject which does not have current theory(Box-Steffensmeier, Brady &amp Collier, 2008).In addition, the qualitative examination climbs to respondents`decision in their specific control. Moreover, a couple of theresearchers can without quite a bit of a stretch assemble informationthrough this strategy in order to comprehend their issues, screeningclarifications, and choosing new thoughts for a subject. In thisdescriptive study qualitative strategy has been utilised for which, acouple research studies are reflected keeping in mind the end goal toachieve the set points and destinations. Besides, this is aqualitative research as it is principally founded on accumulatingsubjective statistics from the participants (Scruggs&amp Mastropieri, 2006).. Quantitative technique will be usedbecause descriptive data is piloted on the software named SPSS inorder to examine the statistics in the best way possible.

2.5. Reporting

The results will be presented in the form of tables by using Ms Exceland graphs will be presented in order to provide results in a moreappropriate manner.


The importance of transport and otherinfrastructural developments is an issue that has continued toattract extensive attention from the economic perspectives. Variousconcerns have been raised regarding the long-term effect of improvinginfrastructural facilities within the business environment. The mainreason why governments and the relevant municipal authorities embarkon improving the transport is to ensure that there is increasedaccessibility to specific areas. Traditionally, the countryside hasbeen considered to be economically challenged as a result of moreresources being channeled towards the urban centers, and NorthernIreland is no different to this common trend.

With the increasing population in the cities, theattention has been turned to rural locations regarding development ofinfrastructure. This is aimed at attracting the predominantly urbanoccupants to relocate to the countryside as a means of decongestingthe cities. This has further been facilitated by the changingdemographic patterns across the world. Both private property ownersand the relevant municipal councils have embarked on a program topromote the availability of housing facilities at substantiallyaffordable rates. However, the prevailing economic conditions alsoplay a massive role in the pricing of accommodation facilities.

The concept of rural development continues to attract input fromvarious areas. It is linked to the challenges and barriers that hadbeen set in place by the external top-down control. Most importantly,the concept of rural development is based on the tenets andinitiatives that were undertaken in the 1990s. The secondanti-poverty program was meant to identify the factors affecting thedeprived locations and develop alternative ways through which areassuffering from rural deprivation would be uplifted. In this regard,the provision of transport facilities would go a long way inimproving the economic situations of the locations (Great Britain,1909). More prominently, however, infrastructural developmentsincrease the social profile of the rural locations thereby leading toimproved economic performances. The prices of housing are thereforelikely to experience massive rises as the shortages in housing supplyis felt across the board. Some of the rural locations in NorthernIreland include Antrim Rural District, Ballycastle Rural District,Ballymena Rural District, Ballymoney Rural District, and Larne RuralDistrict. These are the areas that, met the criteria to be regardedas rural areas as per the Rural Association and Strabane Citizens’Advice Bureau (McDonagh, Varley &amp Shortall, 2009).

There are several emerging issues concerning the composition ofvarious locations in Northern Ireland. The Belfast Metropolitan Areais known to have a strong influence on the settlement and work. Theregional strategic framework provides counterpoints to thegravitational pull of the Belfast Metropolitan area. The Republic ofIreland has initiated modulated development strategies with theprimary aim of identifying ways through which border regions and thewestern regions are based. There is a universal consensus regardingthe growth that is initiated with the development of transport andother infrastructural structures (AFFORNORDconference, Reykholt, Iceland, 2007).

The local economy of Northern Ireland continues to benefit from theelaboration of the transportation infrastructure. The impact oftraffic on employment is mixed an unknown for road and tramrespectively. Road projects have the ability to impact on localemployment. However, the effects are not always positive as has beenshown by a majority of the valuations. The increase in employmentculminates unto improved living standards (CanadaMortgage and Housing Corporation., Canadian Home Builders`Association., &amp REIC Ltd, 1993). This drives the cost ofhousing up since most individuals are in a position to afford thehousing facilities. Another significant effect of transport provisionand the development of infrastructure is that it facilitates anincrease in the entry of firms. These can be new start-up ventures orexisting organizations. The entry of business is likely to increasethe demand for premises that will house such companies. However, theentry of new business organizations into a location does notnecessarily culminate into an increase in the needs for housingfacilities. This is because the entry of new business ventures mightdrive out the established ventures thereby displacing the existingfirms and resulting in no change situation (CanadaMortgage and Housing Corporation., Canadian Home Builders`Association., &amp REIC Ltd, 1993).

Road projects and infrastructural developments have a positive impacton the prices of commodities. It is a common practice for the pricesof goods to rise due to improved facilities within the localities.Accessibility is an essential element in the valuation of property.Assets close to major infrastructures have higher values than thosewho are relatively further away. Additionally, other factors aretaken into consideration when determining the benefits of housingfacilities. They include the security situation of the location inaddition to the status of other areas in proximity to the areas. Whensuch projects are in the vicinity of a settlement area, then theprices of the housing will elevate instantly.

Even though the initiation of road projects are beneficial to thesociety in general, the size of the benefit depends on whether suchprojects are conducted in the urban, suburban and the rural areas.The wages and incomes will rise due to improved infrastructuralframeworks. The increase in benefits has been identified as one ofthe factors that are responsible for the increase in prices ofhousing facilities in rural areas such as Balleymoney and Lisburnrural areas. Productivity is also massively enhanced as a result of asubstantial increase in the transport projects. This is because thetransfer of raw materials and the final product is advanced. In thiscase, there will be growing demand for the prices of houses acrossRural Northern Ireland (Great Britain, 1909). The impact of the railprojects is also dependent on the distance of the project. The closerthe houses in proximity to the rail project, the higher thefluctuation of prices are expected (Workshopon Municipal Infrastructure and Housing, Canada Mortgage and HousingCorporation., &amp Atelier sur les infrastructures municipales etl`habitation, 1995).

However, there are no high-quality evaluations to provide sufficientevidence n the impacts of rail transport on employment and prices ofhouses. The same problem can be witnessed for the road transportsince the identification of positive effects is extensivelydifficult. Additionally, further studies have failed to establish thequality evaluations on the impacts of trams, bicycles, buses andwalking schemes on the economic activities. As such, locations, wheresuch forms are transported, are prominent are not likely toexperience changes in the prices and demands for the houses in ruralNorthern Ireland (Workshopon Municipal Infrastructure and Housing, Canada Mortgage and HousingCorporation., &amp Atelier sur les infrastructures municipales etl`habitation, 1995).

There are other additional negative to thedevelopment of transport facilities and infrastructure in thecountryside of Northern Ireland. The facilitation of bettertransportation systems is also likely to culminate in a substantialincrease in the noise levels as well as congestion. This is liable todiscourage individuals from moving to these locations. Therefore, adecrease in the demands for the housing units will lead to a fall inprices as people avoid the areas by all means. High noise levels areassociated with poor living conditions and standards, and this willbe one of the reasons for the fall in prices of commodities in therural areas.

According to research, studies that have been conducted in the pastto determine the positive impacts of transport about the impact ofemployment have failed to analyze the effect of displacement on theprices of housing facilities. Since the spatial effects

Transport disadvantage and how infrastructureprovisions affected property market prices

The disadvantages of transport and infrastructurecan be widely categorized into three groups

• Economic impacts of infrastructure

• Environmental impacts of transport

• Social impacts of infrastructure

Negative economic impacts of infrastructure

Due to intense development in rural parts of theNorthern Ireland, more and more housing units have come up thusreducing the demand for houses, this may be a cause for the declinein the pricing index over the years. According to the NorthernIreland Residential Property Price Index quarterly report (2015),there was a general decline in pricing of the houses from 2005 to2015.

Massive infrastructural developments in the ruralNorthern Ireland are the main cause of displacement of people fromtheir homes. In fact, statistics indicate that large scaleinfrastructural developments makes about 40-80 million people losetheir homes globally. For those who depend on the land to earn aliving for their families, it means that they lose this privilege forinstance growing crops, fishing, or rearing animals (Townand Country Planning Association.London: Town and Country Planning Association. Topof Form

International Institute for Environment andDevelopment, 1976).

In some cases, the development of infrastructurecauses an increase in population, and the higher the populationgrowth the more congestion is caused. Infrastructural development inthe rural Northern Ireland may have led to traffic congestions due tothe increased number of vehicles on the refurbished roads (Workshopon Municipal Infrastructure and Housing, Canada Mortgage and HousingCorporation., &amp Atelier sur les infrastructures municipales etl`habitation, 1995). The effects of trafficjam and snarl ups range from wastage of precious time on the roads,road rage and excess fuel consumption. Road users also tend to getdelayed thus miss important meetings or deadlines (Morgan, 2013).These are factors that may lead to people not buy houses in theNorthern Ireland region and eventually lead to the decline ofproperty markets prices.

Negative Environmental impacts of Infrastructure

The invasion of forests to clear space for roadsand the diversion of river to create dams and other water bodies havecaused massive impacts on the environment. Some of the environmentalimpacts include

 Uncontrolled pollution resulting fromconstruction operations

 River pollution due to dumping and sewagewastes

 Destruction of river biodiversity andmigration of fish

Most people depend on the environment for theirlivelihood. Such skills of living like fishing, hunting andagriculture will mean that the people around these areas are not ableto cope. If an area cannot support life, then the housing unitsaround these areas will fetch lower market prices.

In addition air and sound pollution from the noiseof train engines and motor vehicles can make some areas inhabitable.Areas closest to train station and very close to highways become alast option for people who like peace and serenity (Thenorthern star: Irish political review Labour comment,1997). This means that not many people willprefer to live near these areas and the cost of the units may reducein the market. Many livelihoods in the Northern Ireland have beenruined because of the extreme air, water and sound pollutionoccurring because of the rural development in terms of infrastructure(Town and Country PlanningAssociation. London: Town andCountry Planning Association. Topof Form

International Institute for Environment andDevelopment, 1976).

Social Negative impacts of infrastructure

The development of superhighways and electrictrains has made life easy to most people in the Northern Ireland.However, in terms of safety and well-being of the individuals who arenot used to the first lane of life, there have been direconsequences. There have been increased death rates caused byaccidents on the roads especially on dark hotspots. Highwayaccidents have become a major distress for dwellers near the roadbecause of the social and economic costs involved. In cases ofemergencies or accidents, the ambulance vehicles may find it achallenge to get to the areas where they are needed urgently (Kull,2014).

Improved infrastructure means more and more peoplecan access the Northern Ireland easily, as discussed earlier, thereis bound to be population explosion in the area. When too many peopleare concentrated in an area, there are consequential negative effectslike (Akhtar, 2009):

• Degradationand depletion of natural resources

With time, the available resources are depleted asthe earth can only produce a limited amount of food and water at anygiven time. Most of the depletion of resources currently seen is as adirect result of the huge growth in the number of people. There isrampant clearing of forests, drying of rivers and hunting ofwildlife.

• Humanconflicts and wars

Due to the major strain on resources,overpopulation causes tension amongst people. There are higherchances of war, disease and starvation increase.

• Risein unemployment

With increase in the number of people in theNorthern Ireland, fewer and fewer jobs are experienced and this leadsto increase in crime rates. High crime rates make life unbearable forany neighborhood.

• General increase in the cost of living

The difference between the high demand and the lowsupply of goods and services raises the prices of the differentcommodities. This includes shelter, healthcare and food. As a resultpeople have to spend more for them to survive with their families.

• Environmental degradation

With high population increase, the demand forcommodities like oil and coal is increased as a result there isoveruse of these commodities. The net effect is the environmentaldegradation, release of greenhouse gases and air pollution by thenumerous vehicles. The changing climate in the end has diverseeffects on our lives (Kull, 2014).


For example, the prices of houses will hinge onthe accessibility of the locations. In areas where there is greateravailability, the rates of the housing facilities are likely to soar.In this case, the infrastructural development is Northern Ireland issure to make the rural areas more accessible to individuals. Theincreased demand for such facilities will culminate in a substantialincrease in the prices of the housing facilities. By improving thetransport networks in such areas, the movement is highly facilitatedin such areas and as such, the status of these locations is likely toincrease, and this results in an increase in the prices of housingfacilities.


There is a universal consensus regarding thebenefits of having an extensive transportation network within aparticular location. This can be attributed to the fact thattransport systems facilitate the functioning of cities and as such,widespread attention should be attached to the performance of thesedevelopments. Scholars argue that there is substantial evidenceindicating that an increase in transportation networks will result inan increase in the prices of housing and other assets. One suchadvantage attached to improved transport systems is the reduction oftravel times between various locations. This means that more time iffreed up and can be used in the completion of other importantprojects. Moreover, the development of transport system cancontribute massively to the creation of comfort of journeys along newsections and the entire network.

Owners of property

The growth of infrastructure and transportationnetworks can be associated with an increase in prices due to consumeropinion towards positive infrastructural developments. People will,therefore, be ready to pay more as a result of the increased growthin facilities. In this regards, it is important to establish thedouble benefits that that property owners will derive as a result ofaccess to better infrastructure as they are likely to gain from thesubstantial increase in the prices of the housing facilities.

Complexitiesin Calculations

There are difficulties experienced at predictingthe property prices due to lack of straightforward techniques ofdetermination. For example, though the rural areas might requireextensive infrastructural developments, it becomes more complicatedto determine the real changes in the value of property due to theexistence of complex variables. Consider a situation whereby there isan existing road network and the government as a means of increasingaccessibility to, decides to construct a highway within the samelocality. Though the road might have extensive benefits for the localarea, it will be impossible to determine the marginal benefits thatarise as a result of upgrading the road networks. However, a changethat is likely to be witnessed is an increase in price if the newlyconstructed highway leads to new interchange opportunities.

CostPassed on to Consumers

According to accounting for macroeconomicfunctions, all forms of the value that are attached to thedevelopment of infrastructural facilities are transferred to thefinal consumers. Despite concerted efforts by the regulators tocharge property developers a specific percentage of the constructionexpenses, such costs are assigned to the tenants in the form ofmonthly or annual rates that they are expected to pay. Therefore, atthe end of the construction period, the prices of the houses willhave considerable increase as a result. This has been a common trendin the rural Northern Ireland for a significant period.

NoiseLevel Data

This is one of the biggest problems encounter as aresult of improved transportation networks within a specifiedlocation. However, the areas that are prominently affected are thosethat are located within considerable distance to the highways as wellas the airports or train stations. In this case, several limitationsare derived with regard t measuring the distance from the road withinwhich noise pollution might be considered as apparent. The noiselevel will also depend on the traffic density and flows duringspecific times of the day. According to the secondary sources, it wasestablished that for a distance less than 300m from the highways, themarginal contribution of noise to the surrounding levels of noisesolutions are predominantly substantial. For this reason, thestandard of noise pollution and proximity to the highways will havean effect on the price of the housing facilities. However, the extentof such effects will depend on the marginal contribution to the levelof noise pollutions within such areas.

Traffic Intensity Data

The estimation of the effects of traffic intensityon the housing prices continues to pose problems to the analysts.These challenges can be attributed to the fact that the increase intraffic intensity contributes to more accessibility levels as well asnoise levels that can affect the housing prices through suchexternalities. Additionally, even when the levels of noise pollutionare controlled the massive increase in traffic intensity is to affectindirectly the levels based on its influence on the road safety andpublic health. Some other factors that are taken into consideration,in this case, include the levels of air pollution from trafficemissions as well as general residential ambiance. These issues wereidentified to arise extensively in locations that are local and assuch predominate almost exclusively in the sparsely located areas.When taking into consideration the nature of density trafficinfluence on the housing prices. Establishing the distance to thehighway interchanges is important.

Treatmentand Control Areas

By taking into consideration the concept ofaccessibility, in this case, the treatment area is regarded based onthe changes in openness levels. As part of infrastructuraldevelopment, postal areas are also likely to witness massive changesin accessibility levels. Such regions with a change amounting to morethan 2.5% are regarded as a treatment area. This analysis is based onthe assumption that postal code areas within share common spatial aswell as housing market characteristics and are such not influenced bythe development of highways.

Useof Public Funds

The development of infrastructural facilities ismostly based on the use of public funds. As such, taxes contributedby individuals and other corporations are channeled to the economicprojects with the primary objective of benefiting the societyshortly. In most instances, the construction of the transportnetworks involves trespassing into personal properties. Though thelevel of compensation is determined by the government through therelevant regulatory authorities, the effects are felt by thecommunities having from such locations. The construction process maywitness a period of economic downturns as people shy away from areasthat are being utilized for the development of infrastructure duringthe building process. The use of taxpayers’ money is also regardedto be unfair since not everyone uses the facilities that have beenprovided through the taxpayers’ money. However, there is auniversal agreement among individuals.


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