1. Joan of Arc became France’s national heroine thanks to her prominent role in Hundred Years’ War. She is perhaps the most significant female figure in military history who through her personal courage and inspiration managed to influence the course of the war, tilting the balance of power on the French side. Her canonization by Pope Benedict XV testifies to her importance for European history. Joan’s role was important because she managed to end the siege of Orleans in 9 days.
Other victories attained by the French troops under her guidance allowed King Charles VII to be crowned in Reims, in this way providing a legitimate monarch to guide the French. In this way, the French were able to protect their statehood and escape the danger that they would be conquered by the British. At one of the lowest points in the history of the nation, the appearance of a simple, uneducated country girl with strong belief in her mission to bring about a reversal in hostilities between the two sides.
With her actions, Joan of Arc showed that at times when politics was dominated by kinds and nobility, common people also had a role to play in history and could single themselves out through individual talent and leadership. Although Joan was eventually ousted from power by aristocratic French families, her input remains unquestionable. Her conviction as a heretic by the British court was later reconsidered a quarter of a century after her death. Even the posthumous reconsideration of her trial by Pope Callixtus III signified her importance to the history of the continent. 2.
Enrico Dandolo, the Dodge of Venice in 1192-1205, was ruling the city in the crucial time of the Fourth Crusade. His understanding of the situation in Venice at that point was the reason why the Crusade happened at all. But for Enrico Dandolo, the knights about to leave on their perilous journey would have been stranded without costs to cover the trip expenses including ships and supplies. Demonstrating the qualities of an outstanding leader, Enrico Dandolo delivered an outstanding appearance in San Marco di Venezia that helped him gain public support and raise funds for the trip.
His contribution was also instrumental in leading the knights on the trip itself. It was on his initiative that the crusade altered its destination to Zara, the controversial port that was contested by Hungary and Venice. Dandolo was therefore no idealist and saw crusades for what they really were: military raids with the aim of conquering more territory. In this light, it becomes clear why his actions followed distinct goals. During his early years in office, Dandolo was forced to carry out an operation against the Byzantine Empire that seized the assets of many Venetians.
During the Crusade, he revenged against the dangerous neighbour and weakened Byzantine by seizing Constantinople. I believe that his politics is a good example of how states pursue selfish policies directed at their own survival and aim to neutralized their enemies and seize territories under inspirational pretexts. 3. Early Islamic views on Trade and Commerce: The proliferation of Islam occurred because of the spread of trade and commerce that carried with it Muslim faith. Islam was introduced in China after it was reached by the Arab merchants on their trade voyages.
The same occurred in Southeast Asia where Islam also penetrated via trade voyages. Acheh and the Muslim Sultanate on the Malay Peninsula emerged as a result. The views of Islam on trade and commerce were therefore favourable as trade permitted the enrichment of Muslim states and led to the spread of faith. Islam holds distinct views on commerce, encouraging it as a way toward survival, while simultaneously demanding honesty in business transactions, such as fulfilment of contracts, freedom of enterprise and consent of all parties.
4. The Magna Carta, issued in 1215, was an important prerequisite for the development of modern-day constitutional law. Although a far cry from contemporary standards, the document represented a dramatic breakthrough compared to the old practices and norms. The document represented restrictions on the role and functions of the king and subjected his will on certain points to law. The document, or more exactly, the collection of documents certainly did not emerge as a creation of idealists willing to institute the rule of law.
Instead, it emerged as a result of power struggle between the British king and national aristocracy. In fact, the document that established the rights of the 25-member baron council was signed by King John under enormous pressure and quickly renounced leading the First Barons’ War. However, the crowning of Henry III as British King in 1216 opened the way for barons’ power and re-established the Magna Carta. Throughout the European History, the document came to symbolise limits set on sovereign power.
Provisions referring to the freedom of the English Church, judicial rights, anti-corruption and fair trade guidelines are important evidence that back in the 13th century, people were able to come up with detailed description of laws governing the monarch’s activities and state setup. 5. Jan Hus, an important Czech thinker and leader, gave impetus to the Hussite movement named after him and stimulated the appearance of the Reformation movement. Although the Roman Catholic Church believed his teachings to be heretical, his message exerted great influence on the development of Christianity and European history.
Hus’ rise to prominence occurred at the University of Prague at the time of the papal schism – competition between the two papal candidates – Gregory XII and Benedict XII. With the exodus of a host of scholars because of the dispute, Hus rose to importance as the first rector of the university, and his teachings became influential in Czechia. Hus’ teachings in many ways took from the British preacher John Wycliffe. Targeting the corruption and greediness of the Catholic Church, Hus along with other thinkers laid the foundation for the reformation movement.
Hus disputed the power of the Pope, instead placing Christ at the head of the church. This idea helped fuel indignation against the leaders of the Catholic Church that had already invoked the anger and frustration of many individuals, and his idea of the church as the whole body of believers instead of a select few was certainly very democratic for its time. Hus’ path impressed me with determination and persistence with which Hus carried his message. He could have guessed that going to the Council of Constance, he could be tried and killed, but he nevertheless went there to defend his cause.
Hus’ heroic death on the fire ignited impulse to resistance against conservatism in many hearts all around the continent. 6. What is “history”. History is a study of past events in the human society that takes a comprehensive look at different spheres of life and attempts to analyze them with the maximum degree of objectivity. Historians try to gather facts about the past events and draw relevant conclusions; however, they will not always arrive at the same answer even using the same methods. That is why there can be many different explanations of events.
For instance, from one perspective, the current depressed state of developing nations is caused by imperialism of super powers, and there can be evidence found to support this statement, such as abusive trade practices etc. On the other hand, one can also attempt to analyse the past of these nations to explain their plight through a combination of historic factors.
Clarke, J. (n. d. ). HY 150: INTRODUCTION. Retrieved May 29, 2006, from: http://users. ju. edu/jclarke/hy150biskintroduction. htm