. European leaders had to keep up with the changing times because of the rise of free-thinkers during the ongoing renaissance period. They had to look at how their governments were being run and institute reforms on taxations, religion and relations with other nations. Examples like Henry VII of England launching an efficient tax system to replenish the royal treasury and maneuvering of different countries to gain the favor of the Roman Catholic Church show the effort being exerted to keep their heads above water. Question 2.
This was due to the establishment of the millet legal entity wherein governing a certain province was left to the ethnic or religious leader in the area. This gave a sense of independence which would quell rebellion and left the day to day tasks to leaders familiar with the culture and issues. Question 3. They were able to lay the foundation of religion and territory (traditional borders) which are still evident in modern day Iran. Question 4. In the government, each office had 2 officials being a Manchu and a Han so that each would check and counter-check each other.
Some generals from the previous dynasty were also given governorships of provinces to keep the military in check since a lot of the soldiers in the army were still loyal to the previous regime. Question 5. The Tokugawa shogunate imposed strict caste systems never done by its predecessors. The samurai was at the top of the system followed by the rest of the classes. Following this system, the government was military and supported by levies from farmers.
Shoguns insisted their daimyos (provincial governors) be fiercely loyal to them but gave them autonomy with their areas of responsibility. Question 6. In Latin America, since there was a caste system in force during the colonial period, Creoles were put as a lower class from Europeans since they had minimal Amerindian ancestry even though they were considered citizens. The Creole mentality led to numerous rebellions and alliances with the natives in some countries due to injustices and disgruntlement. Question 7.
African states gave a ready market for manpower since it was already part of their culture. Since most European countries had colonies in Africa, they could just send these slaves to the New World and soon they outdid Arab states with the amount of traffic. Question 8. Common features of these states are still the motivation of any modern government which is to stay in power. Whether it was for personal gain or the desire to be of service, leaders tried to keep up with the changing times by implementing several degrees of reform like tax laws, state religion or form of government.