Health Care USA

HEALTH CARE USA 11

HealthCare USA

Question1

U.S.annual health care expenditures far outstrip those of 7 otherdeveloped nations. In relationship with expenditures, U.S. healthpopulation status ranking on critical indicators in comparison withthose of other developed nations is: Dismally lower

Question2

Inthe past, patient behaviors within the health care delivery systemwere formed from the authoritarian positions of better-educatedproviders who expected patients to be compliant and grateful. Todayhealth care providers and consumers: Encourage more proactive rolesfor patients’ participation in health care decisions with “shareddecision-making”.

Question3

Ofthe levels of prevention associated with the natural history ofdisease, primary prevention refers to: Health education and specificprotection.

Question4

Theservice priorities of the U.S. health care system reflect America’sfascination with dramatic high-tech medicine. As a result: All of theabove

Question5

Inits early origins in colonial America, the patient/physicianrelationship can be best characterized as: Personal, confidential andsimple with payments based on patients’ financial capacity.

Question6

Asearly as the 19thcentury some Americans carried “health insurance” throughemployers, fraternal orders, guilds, trade associations, unions, orcommercial insurance companies. However unlike health insurance oftoday, these insurance policies only provided for: Fixed payments tocompensate for lost wages due to injury, sickness or disability.

Question7

TheAmerican Medical Association’s initial reaction to Blue Crosshospital insurance plans suggested that the plans: Were unsound andunethical.

Question8

Themajor health care advances of the second half of the 20thcentury were in the area of: Vaccines and antibiotics to prevent andcontrol infectious diseases, tranquilizers, and the birth controlpill.

Question9

Theexplosion of science and technology in the 1970s resulted in:Encouragement of physicians’ specialization, higher costs of healthcare and medical school efforts to attract more students to primarycare.

Question10

Acentral provision of the ACA to assure health care coverage for mostAmericans is: The individual mandate.

Question11

Amajor challenge of creating health information systems using datafrom many sources is the feature known as “interoperability.” Thesolution applied to achieving interoperability has been thedevelopment of: Health information exchanges (HIEs).

Question12

Threeorganizations elements essential for successful health informationsystems implementation are: Technology, policies and procedures, andculture.

Question13

Acomputerized decision support system (CDSS) is best described as anelectronic system that: Matches individual patient data with acomputerized knowledge base such as evidence-based clinicalguidelines.

Question14

Thesingle most important factor in accelerating health informationtechnology adoption since 2008 has been: Financial incentiveprograms that reward “meaningful use”.

Question15

“Meaningfuluse” of electronic health records is best described as: Efficientapplication of electronic health records under internal criteriaestablished within physician practices and hospitals.

Question16

Incolonial America, the primary functions of hospitals were to: Shelterolder adults, the dying, orphans, and vagrants and protect communityresidents from contagiously sick and mentally ill persons.

Question17

Thedevelopment that contributed most significantly to the decline of thesocial mission of hospitals was the: Enactment of private and publicinsurance reimbursement for hospital care

Question18

Themajor obligation of doctors when obtaining informed consent for amedical procedure is to: Ensure that the patient understands therisks and benefits of the procedure.

Question19

Untilthe mid-1980s, hospitals were reimbursed for whatever they charged ona “retrospective” basis. Now they are paid a certain amount foreach patient’s care on a predetermined “prospective” basis. Theamount they are paid is based on: Diagnosis related groups (DRGs).

Question20

Hospitalsin the future health care system will: Expand as hubs of moretechnologically sophisticated health care systems.

Question21

Thetechnological and clinical advances that allow many surgical to besafely performed on an ambulatory basis had what corollary effects onhospitals? Physicians become competitors with hospitals for the samelines of business.

Question22

Theprimary organizational mode of the medical care in the United States,in terms of volumes of services delivered, is: Private practicephysicians’ offices.

Question23

Intoday’s hospitals, outpatient clinics frequently provide: Care forthose without private physicians, teaching sites for medicalresidents, and primary care services organized similarly to privatephysician offices.

Question24

“Urgentcare” is best described as care: Provided on a walk-in, extendedhour basis for acute illness and injury that is either beyond thescope of or availability of primary care practice or retail clinic.

Question25

Thepredominant services of local public health departments today are:Child and adult immunizations.

Question26

Incolonial America the primary modes of medical education was: A and C

Question27

Medicalsocieties were first established for the primary purpose of:Improving the quality of medical education and practice

Question28

AcademicHealth Centers may be best described as: Complexes of medical schoolsand other health professional schools – such as nursing, pharmacy,dentistry, and allied health – affiliated with each other and withteaching hospitals and other research and clinical facilities.

Question29

Inorder to provide direct patient care, physicians are required to: Complete a 3-7 year accredited residency program and pass a medicalboard exam of the state in which they will practice.

Question30

Physicianemployment by hospitals continues on a pathway of steady growth. Onereason why physicians are leaving private practice for hospitalemployment is: Increasingly complex health insurance and informationtechnology demands of private practice.

Question31

Healthcare system changes, including advancing technology, will likelyresult in new, more highly specialized health occupations. Which ofthe following is not one of the expected effects of this development?Hospitals’ resistance to employing multi-skilled personnel

Question32

States try to protect the public from incompetent care by licensingcertain health professions. Certification from licensing in that,certification: only recognizes special education or training.

Question33

Eachyear approximately 6,000 international medical graduates (IMGs) enterU.S. to practice. IMGs are vitally important to the health caredelivery system because: They fill a shortfall in the number ofresidents required by U.S. hospitals.

Question34

Thecategory of allied health professionals, “therapeutic sciencepractitioners” concerned with the treatment and rehabilitation ofpatients with all types of diseases and injuries include which of thefollowing professions? Physical and occupational therapists, speechlanguage pathologists,

Question35

Unlikemedicine, dentistry essentially remains a “cottage industry”primarily serving only those with dental insurance or who can affordto pay out-of-pocket. For this reason: Many of the population groupswith the greatest need have no access to the services.

Question36

Althoughthe ACA will enact sweeping U.S. health care system reforms, onefundamental element of the system that will remain unchanged is: financing of the health care expenditures through a combination ofpublic and private sources.

Question37

Thecurrent highest personnel care expenditure in the U.S. is for:Hospital care.

Question38

Majordrivers of U.S. health expenditures include: Advancing medicaltechnology, growth in the older population, specialty medicine, laborintensity, and reimbursement system incentives.

Question39

Thebasic concept of health insurance is antithetical to the premise onwhich personal or property insurance was historically definedbecause: Other forms of insurance were intended to cover individualsagainst the low risk of unlikely events such as premature death oraccidents while health insurance provides coverage for unlikelyevents in addition to routine and discretionary services.

Question40

Themanaged care concept called “capitation” refers to: Physiciansagreeing to provide all medical care an individual requires for aspecific time period, for a prepaid fee.

Question41

Long-termcare is best described as: Services provided in both home andinstitutional setting for persons of all ages with varying levels ofmedical, social, and personal care needs.

Question42

Whichof the following society factors increases the need for formallong-term care services? Women working outside the home

Question43

TheU.S. history of institutional long-term care began with: Communalcare settings operated by charitable community members and governmentsupported almshouses.

Question44

Thedevelopment of formal home care services, such as those provided bythe Visiting Nurses Association originated as: A social response toimprove unhealthy living conditions of immigrants residing in crowdedurban tenements and prevent the spread of infectious diseases.

Question45

Whichof the following best describes the informal long-term care system? Care and assistance provided in the home by family members andfriends.

Question46

Incolonial American, mental health “treatment” consisted of:Confinement in homes, in jails or in almshouses where patientssuffered severely.

Question47

Nationalawareness of the needs of the mentally ill rose sharply in theaftermath of WWI because: Thousands of solders returned from the warsuffering from “war neurosis” or “shell shock”.

Question48

Duringthe 1960s, one factor that enabled the mentally ill persons to movefrom large institutions to community settings was: The development ofeffective pharmacologic treatments for many disorders.

Question49

Theterm “non-parity” as it applies to insurance coverage for mentalhealth services, is best defined as: Insurers using different andequal systems to cover mental health from those used for medicalcare.

Question50

WorldHealth Organization ranking of the leading causes of disabilities inthe U.S. and Canada in terms of the total number of years lost toillness, disability or premature death places neuropsychiatricdisorders at what level? Fourth