A hacker is a person who has knowledge of making software’s computer hardware programs, this name hacker specially given to that person who is fully dedicated to this field and he has a best knowledge to deal with every issue in software and hardware designing. A hacker is the person who is the pioneer in making the software’s beyond the resources and he is able to apply many methods to extend the knowledge in designing of computer programming, hacker in ways of computer programming also refers to the person who tries to do some cheating and interfere under some private data.
There are two divisions of hackers in computer system programming those who have positive thoughts and use their knowledge for making the things which are beyond the expectations with in the limited resources these are the experts of making the computer hardware and software’s, however the other person has negative thoughts and he is concerned with the illegal use of computer software which is not known good to public. A hacker is the person who is to deals with the computer security system and the computer networks. “The hacker mind-set is not confined to this software-hacker culture.
There are people who apply the hacker attitude to other things, like electronics or music actually; you can find it at the highest levels of any science or art. Software hackers recognize these kindred spirits elsewhere and may call them ‘hackers’ too and some claim that the hacker nature is really independent of the particular medium the hacker works in. But in the rest of this document we will focus on the skills and attitudes of software hackers, and the traditions of the shared culture that originated the term ‘hacker’”.
(Hacker, n. p. , 2007) Types of Hackers There are three categories of hacker divided as according to their works these are: Programmer This is the person who is expert of setting the programming highly and he is the person able to deal with every problem related with computer programming. The person dealing with the computer programming has the great respect in the society he is capable of applying the knowledge to programming the computer without much planning for some work, he do all tat at the time.
They are the persons whose minds are refers as creative minds. There are some of the persons who puts code in opening of any program or data related to the organization some times when those persons leaves the job and move on to some other organization then there is a need of hacker who enters the program by breaking the code no any person other then the computer programmer who have such ability of hacking. Security Expert
A hacker is also that person who deals with the computer network and programming. These are those hackers which deals with the computer security they some times have negatives thoughts by which they enters to the other persons systems by beginning their code this way of hacking is un respected in the society they made their access to other peoples personal computers easily because they have the knowledge of computer security and programming also.
There are some of the hackers who have the knowledge beyond the others expectation and they can easily enter and challenge to enter in to that programming which is develop by some other person. There skills are not just limited to the present technology but they increased their skills with the new changes in the technological fields. (Tiller, 171, 2005 ) Hardware Hacker The third category of hacker is the hardware hacker he is the person whom called the hardware modifier.
He is skilled in creating the hardware modifications and have full knowledge beyond the others expectations on hardware programming. These are the hacker who with the use of some of the standard items to make changes in the computer hardware system the hacker can easily modify his computer hardware by the use some cathode tubes for lighting and the increase of memory he can easily increase the storage capacity of hardware. These are those hackers who have just not only the skills of hardware for computer but also have the knowledge of maintaining some other machines.
Hackers are those persons who whenever want to develop their own codes, firm wire device drivers and the formation of devices for those things that are beyond their limits. The work of hacker is very complicated so it is not under the skills of every one these are some specials persons who have the creative mind to develop ideas and put their ideas into the formation. They are the skilled programmers; there are many programmers who are referred to as the skilled hackers. (Donald C, n. p. , 2007) Hacker or Cracker
Hackers are those who have the aim of building the things with no evil thoughts in mind they always want something new and beneficial they have much capacity to solve the problems the increase learning capacity and from learning towards leading is the main objective of hacker. Hacker is the person who doesn’t want everything within the seconds he or she search’s learn deal talk and then finally want to achieve some thing. They must try to repeat and try to follow those things until or unless they get full command over them.
The person who indulge in hacking will never get bore of the hacking if he or she becomes bored of repeating any thing so many times then they must be out of the hacking. For the good hacking skills a hacker must take him or her self away from the boredoms and repeat as many times as he or she wants and to do the work by making them selves fully energetic. A hacker must have the freedom to learn more and moire from the given programming not to stop at the present as the other hackers go beyond his or her expectations this is not the work in which the person gets stop and do not utilize the changes in technology in the advanced world.
The cracker refers to the person who uses this technology in the wrong way to use illegal methods and interfere in some ones privacy. 1 To follow the path. 2 Look to the master, 3 Follow the master, 4 Walk with the master, 5 See through the master, 6 Become the master. Hacking Skills A hacker must be a persons who is skilled and have knowledge to go beyond some ones expectations he or she must be creative hacking not only apply in the computer hacking but also to be apply in some other like music and some other devices.
However as afar as the hacker is concerned he is the person with the mind of making those things which are not like the previous things, they want to change ideas about the different devices and always un search of producing some new the positive hackers always wants to provide some thing new with high skills however the hacker with negative thinking do not take interest in hacking they just take interest in cracking. (Mary Flanagan, Austin Booth, 168, 2002) Programming Skills
For the hacker it is necessary that he or she must know about the computer languages if they don’t have any knowledge of the computer language they should take start-practicing language with the use of python. It is that language which is called as the beginning language for the hackers because the language is more documented and understanding or the hacker it is necessary to take some knowledge from the teachers and must have full command obverse the computer language because with out these skills they don’t get success in designing of some large programs on computer.
If the person has knowledge of only one or two languages of computer he will not be able to reach the position of a good hacker. The hacker should teach hi, or herself generally by doing practice on many programs because at the beginning no one would be the best hacker with out practice. For the best programmer it is to say that he must have the knowledge of language c.
there is no such distinctions in languages to identify that this one is best for the beginners so for adopting the skills of programming a hacker must try to practice over many languages and then from them he will be able to make the develop programs from the small ones. There are some of the jobs on computer programming which are also associated with the language, so it is best to use python at the beginning. LISP is the most advance computer language, which gives a form to whole of the hackers experience and practice.
The program practicing is just like the writing of good natural languages. (Dissident, n. p. , 2007) Buying of a Source for Hacking To increase the knowledge and get more command over the computer programming a hacker must take the step to purchase some programs and install it on the personal computer these involves the Unix Linux and there are also many other operating systems but these systems are binary in function sop it is hard fro the beginner of hacking to read the code and modify it in to computer programming.
First hacking practice must be started on the personal computer with in the personal programming not go out. So hacking in the closed source system will be beneficial for the beginners. UNIX is that operating system which is used on the Internets with out the use of UNIX one should not have the knowledge of hacking from different websites. So that’s why the hacking is now very common to the term UNIX. But the use of any operating system requires the skills to use it making up of aim to find out the things in the operating system it is necessary to learn it run it and to make talks with it.
Use of Html The hacker must have the full command of using the web this is not associated with the browsing of any websites it is the writing of word HTML. If the person does not know about programming there are some of the habits, which tell by the html so it requires the making of home page. The hacker must learn the languages as x-html and classic html for beginning of hacking. But the building up of the home page is just not the computer programming it involves many other things like writing of many contents on the home page to make it more interested for other hackers. Learn Functional English
The hacking involves the use of English language on any thing like hacking of the different programs and hacking on the internet wants a good command on English functional language it is called the working language for all the hackers who are going to begin the hacking one of the reason for the use of English as the basic step to learn programming is that English is that language which has more technical vocabulary the translation is also done by English in many personal computers English is that language which ha more diversity and technical styles and it is also the most speaking language all over the world.
So for the good hacker it is necessary to have command of good functional English like writing of English in good manner and the know how of grammatical terms with out any mistakes. “The hacker culture (and the engineering development of the Internet, for that matter) is run by volunteers. There’s a lot of necessary but unglamorous work that needs done to keep it going administering mailing lists, moderating newsgroups, maintaining large software archive sites, developing RFCs and other technical standards.
People who do this sort of thing well get a lot of respect, because everybody knows these jobs are huge time sinks and not as much fun as playing with code. Doing them shows dedication”. (What is Ethical Hacking? n. p. , 2007) Ethic of Hacker This term hacker’s ethics was used by the journalist Steven Levis in hackers, the heroes of computer revolution in the year 1984. In the Levis view the hacker’s ethics is the large portion of hackers attitudes towards hacking he talked about the hackers in MIT artificial intelligence laboratory, in which there was a hacker he called the true hacker whose name was Richard m stall man.
The hacker ethics concerned with the hacking like writing up of software’s and hardware and making them to use by others and the opposite form of hacking that is cracking is the breaking up of the law and usage of illegal methods and evil thoughts to enters in some ones privacy some times these crackers who have the knowledge of programming get admitted in some other develop program gives them a loss. These types of evil-minded peoples are cracker in hacking ethics there is the study of both hacker and the crackers or both.
1 The ethics of hacking involves having the positive mind of sharing something with others like the writing of the software and making it free to use by others is the positive thinking this is the way of provisions of positive thinking and the spreading of knowledge to others in positive ways. 2 Cracking the system is also acceptable in the hacking ethics but this is necessary that the cracking is done on the legal ways like no loss to others privacy cheating and breach of contract.
It is only taken in hacking ethics as a fun not the destruction for others. These are those principles, which are very common and are generally accepted by the hackers all over the world. There are many hackers who used the hacking ethics of the first one principle they modify and write the software’s and tell every body free to use it and read it there are some of the foundations who are offering the free software’s tells that it is the immoral and indiscipline practice to stop some one from sharing the computer programs.
There are many peoples who are just attached to the hacking to enters to some ones system and break their code they feel that this type of hacking is also the part of hacking but hacking it self do not involves such practices like hacking is not concerned with the illegal use of rights, hacking in case of fun is that to enters with other persons permission and some legal considerations not to done any thing they want and get in to some ones privacy this is consider unethical and harmful for others .
hacking in this is unbeneficial for society too. However the most commonly applied ethic of hacking is the first one in which many hackers after modifying and writing of the software’s wants its sharing with the other peoples to gave them some information and also gain from others this is unethical to use the hacking in some ones personal ways and do not try to tell others. There are many professionals who are attached to the first principle of hacking ethics and use it in informational senses.
The famous networks such use nets internets and FIDO nets these are the most cooperative networks and they function with out the central control due to their dependence on the first principle of hacking. (Shell, n. p. , 2007) Principles of Hacker’s Ethics Hacking is the different field in science and technology it does not have such things which coincide with any other things of science and technology there are two ways of thinking of hacker and these are hackers and the crackers.
But there is mainly large amount of consideration is given to the word hacker not the crackers as the first times introduction of the hackers ethics was given by levis in the heroes of computer revolution. This is the book written by Steven Levis on the culture of hacking the book on hacking was published in 1984 in the New York City. In that book Levis discussed some of the people’s machines and those events which are joint with the hacking cultures the book got famous in the past because of those principles which have been given by Levis in the book these were:
1 The first principles of hacking given by levis was the access to computers and those machines from which some one gets learning and the way to increase the knowledge of practical working that thing is beyond some ones expectations and there are some minds which make it under the control of them selves by having techniques of dealing with the machine. 2 Hacking is concerned with the principle of free information for all. 3 It is also that type of thing which we cannot trust it will be changing and changing with the new technologies it s not static.
4 Hackers are those peoples who should be evaluated from their hacking capability not with those criteria as in some other activities require age sex language etc. 5 Computer is that thing which gives a person art and the beauty too. 6 The machine is that which is changing will change and still changing the life of the people for betterment not with the evil thoughts. So from the Levis principles it is to find out that the hacking ethics is generally concerned with the positive thoughts and good approaches not the illegal use and law and order breaking culture.
In the levis concept computer is that machine which needs the good sense of working the information ion computers must be share and transmitted to others by making different software’s and hardware programs, and those programmers have good thoughts to share something with the entire world. Levis tried to give the positive views on hackers in his book he describes the ethics of hackers in positive sense and told that these hackers are the fascinating peoples. (CEN: Business: News: Hacking – the ethical way, n.
p. , 2007) Ethical Hackers The ethical hackers are those who have a large amount of knowledge about the system networks and the operating systems. There are some of the companies on internet who serves as the good protectors of information the ethical hackers must depended on the trusted company for further actions, there are four types of hacking which can be done by the ethical hackers these are: IP Hacking The hacking of some ones IP address with out any prior information. Application Hackers
These are those hackers which enter deep in to the data base and from them they got in to the production servers this type of hacking requires the first principle of hacking to follow. Hacking of Infrastructure This type of hacking deals with the hacking of password codes and the efforts to access some ones system to get enter in it. “Ethical hackers possess a variety of knowledge and skills concerning the web, network and operating systems, programming, and physical security. First and foremost, they must be completely trustworthy.
The sensitivity of the information gathered during an evaluation requires that strong measures be taken to ensure the security of the systems being employed by the ethical hackers themselves. I would recommend companies such as Atlanta based Vigilar or Internet Security Systems. These companies are leaders in their field and you can trust your information will be protected. They understand the sensitivity of the information gathered during an evaluation and have strong measures in place to ensure the security of the data”.
(What is Ethical Hacking? ) True hackers are those which are intelligent and they want to learn they want to listen to the pother and try to adopt that thing in their works the hackers are not those which try to give loss to others and use the hacking in wrong ways, hackers are the respectful peoples and the ethics of hacking do not involve such type of hacking which is harmful and unbeneficial in any ways to some one.
A true hacking is concerned with the dignity of work and work consideration and concentration the true hackers do not get bore from learning they have the ability to go beyond everything and want to change the thing in by adopting the new methods of technology. Ethics of hacking involves the use and attempt to the others system in a legal and ethical way, not the unethical sense of attempting to others programs and their destructions.
The ethical hacker is that system and network expert which attacks on the system on behalf of his owner not by him or herself. The ethical hackers enters in to the systems for reporting the security not with the view of taking some benefits of entering in to some ones system this is wrong and consider unethical in the ethical hacking systems. “There are also some other names of ethical hacking like penetration testing, intrusion testing, and the red teaming”.
(What is Ethical Hacking? ) With the increase in the technology there is much need of the systems security for the big organizations because they have large amount of the private data of regular transactions of the business in to it so its security requires the hacker who want to check the security of the computer data so in ethical ways the hacker s work is concerned with the checking of computers codes security not the use of that data for his or her own benefits.
The true hacker is no that person which gets in to the system to destroy some ones privacy settings and transfers the information to others after getting in to the system this is not the ethics of hacking however the true hacker is that who for getting the knowledge of any things working its functions parts and other processes to enters in to the system, in simple words for seeking more knowledge. True hackers want to search from everything in the world for making their knowledge enlarge and learn to make by him or her that thing which has more technological advancement then the previous one.
“A true hacker doesn’t get into the system to kill everything or to sell what he gets to someone else. True hackers want to learn, or want to satisfy their curiosity, that’s why they get into the system. To search around inside of a place they’ve never been, to explore all the little nooks and crannies of a world so unlike the boring cess-poll we live in. Why destroy something and take away the pleasure you had from someone else? Why bring down the whole world on the few true hackers who aren’t cruising the phone lines with”. (Levy, n. p. , 1984) Malicious Intent
There is the need of hacker for checking the security of the system in now a days business applications but this doesn’t refers to the use of any thing in the wrong ways as the hacking ethics involves the solution of problems not getting benefits from others problems ethics of hacking does not involves the evil thoughts of getting advantage from some ones privacy, the use of hacking in an ethical way should result in many advancements in the world in the field of computer hardware and software technology as computer is the thing which is for every one to get knowledge this knowledge must be in positive sense not in the destructive sense.
New Ethics of Hacking The principles of hacking given by Levis were also for the ethical hacking there are now some of the other principles given on hacking which are called the ethical principles of 90s. The use of computer in a good way not to abuse the computer or destroy the systems of others, it involves not to damage and destroy the data of other the damage must not be given to others in physical sense in ethical sense or in emotional sense, don’t use the illegal rights assess.
This is not the hacker who changed and transfers the data of some ones system to destroy the privacy settings, their working is just to explore the computer programming not to take advantage from the given data . to do cracking is just to take by the hackers as fun and this should be done in ethical way. Sometimes if some one don’t wants to alter or delete the data but in hacking attempts he wrongly get deleted something from the data this is not counted as the unethical way to use the system because no one wants to destroy others data with out his own advantage.
Everybody has the full right to dealing with this or her personal information and they got angry when some one try to access their privacy but these privacy rights as described in the older principles that no one should try to interfere in some ones privacy then the question in modern ethics is that if a person has his or her own telephone number the credit card number his or her name so no body has the right to know all that because this is his or her personal information.
There is also some other things like the crime records by the smugglers and other thief’s so n one has right to interfere in their privacy? “The concept of privacy is something that is very important to a hacker. This is so because hackers know how fragile privacy is in today’s world. Wherever possible we encourage people to protect their directories, encrypt their electronic mail, not use cellular phones, and whatever else it takes to keep their lives to themselves.
In 1984 hackers were instrumental in showing the world how TRW kept credit files on millions of Americans. Most people had never even heard of a credit file until this happened”. (Mizrach, n. d, n. p. ) Computer is that thing which requires the information to be distributed o every one not the wrong use of information and exit some one from its usage and benefits everybody has the right to use the resources but not to use for time pass and other activities which are not beneficial.
This was the past principle of ethics of hacking this is not possible in modern ethics as it say that if some one not use the resource well and have no knowledge of using it so how can he or she able to talk about that thing, for example if some one do not know anything about driving when he or she purchased a new car they want many trips to set them selves on the driving seats that is they want practice for performing good, in this way the use of computer in both ways is right for the person but its use in legal limits is necessary.
Computer provides knowledge to every one but the use of knowledge in ethical way is good like hacking in the ethical way is good. ((Forester & Morrison, n. d. , 73)