Graphic Organizer The 13 Disabilities under the Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Outline essay

Comparison Graphic Organizer 1

GraphicOrganizer: The 13 Disabilities under the Disabilities Education Act(IDEA)


Underthe IDEA, there are 13 classes under which a student is qualified toget the protections as well as services by this act. Below is agraphic organizer that illustrates each of these categories. Thegraphic organizer below has four parts namely:

Definition:that gives the meaning of the disability as defined by the ACT

Causes:that illustrates the various possible causes of the disability

Prevalence:that describe the number of people having the disease and in somecases, the trends of the disability.

PotentialImpact on learning:that illustrates how the disease affects the educational performanceof the child.

Autism: a disability associated with development that significantly affects both verbal and nonverbal communication, as well as social interaction, it is mostly evident before age three


No known single cause, however

-mostly associated with abnormalities in the structure and function of the brain

-may be inherited


-Unusual fixation for instance, playing only with toys having a particular shape.

-Unable to focus before first finishing a routine

-Disruptive behavior in case the normal schedule is interrupted

-Unusual communication behavior may not talk at all or decide to repeat certain phrases

Problems with understanding social interactions


-According to CDC, about 1 percent of the world population has autism spectrum disorder

-Prevalence in the United States is estimated at 1 in 68 births

-More than 3.5 million Americans live with an autism spectrum disorder.

Potential Impact on Learning

-Trouble following direction


-Hampered ability to communicate

-Disruptive behavioral problems

Deaf-Blindness : Child with both hearing and visual disabilities


– Genetic condition

-Birth trauma

-Illness and injury (stroke, head trauma, and meningitis)


-Loss of both vision and hearing


– As at 2007, about 50,000 individual in the United States are deaf-blind with over 10,000 being individuals under the age of 21.

Potential Impact on Learning

– Problems with:

-Understanding classroom lectures

-Participating in class discussions

-Fulfilling reading assignment

-Presenting oral reports

Deafness: a hearing impairment so severe that the individual cannot process linguistic information through hearing, both with or without amplification.


– Damage to the sensitive hair cells as a result of injury or age

Loud noises


– Hearing loss (hearing loss above 90decibels)


– Is more common among the elderly people

-Over 700,000 individuals in US have the condition

Potential Impact on Learning

Difficulties in:

-Participating in classroom discussions

-Learning by lectures

-Giving oral presentations

-Sitting oral exams

-Watching educational films

Emotional Disturbance: a condition that generates behavioral issues



-Brain disorder


-Family functioning



– Inability to develop or maintain interpersonal relationships with colleagues as well as teachers

-Inability to study, and which cannot be explained by sensory, intellectual, or health factors

-Pervasive mood of unhappiness

-Ability to develop physical symptoms as well as fears characterized with personal problems or school problems.


– According to CDC about 8.3 million children aged 4-17 years old have this condition

Potential Impact on Learning

– Classroom disruptions (for instance, the individual may start to cry uncontrollably or decide to throw a wild temper tantrum)

Hearing Impairment: inability to hear, whether a permanent one or one that fluctuates, and which affects the child’s educational capability.


– Ear infection

-Perforated eardrums


-Impacted earwax


-Poor Eustachian tube functioning

-Malformation of outer ear, middle ear and ear canal


-hearing loss


– About 1.4 million children have the condition (below 18yrs old)

-3 in 1000 infants are born with the condition

Potential Impact on Learning

Difficulty in:

-taking notes while the lectures are taking place

-subjects of spelling, grammar and vocabulary

-participating in discussions

-oral presentations

-watching educational videos

Intellectual Disability: a substantively sub-average intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior, and is manifested during the period of development.


– Birth complications


-Pregnancy issues

-Diseases ( like measles)

-Contact with poisonous compounds (e.g. lead and mercury)


-An IQ or below 70

-Poor problem-solving skills

-Inability to comprehend accepted social skills

-Difficulty in remembering

-Delay in reaching development stages like talking or sitting up


– About 2.5% of the total population of US fall under this category, as at 2013.

Potential Impact on Learning

– Trouble understanding new concepts being taught

-Limited vocabulary

-Inappropriate behavior

-Problems accomplishing given tasks

Multiple Disabilities: Entails simultaneous impairments, which causes severe educational problems such that the individuals cannot be accommodated in an educational program that is solely dedicated to one of the impairments. However, does not include deaf-blindness.


– No single cause


– Hampered speech

-Hampered communication skills

-Mobility challenges

-Need for assistance in conducting daily activities


– According to the Department of Education (US) about 132,333 students fall under this category

Potential Impact on Learning

Difficulties in:

-Determining a setting suitable for the child

-Communicating with peers as well as teachers

-Assessing and compensating for visual as well as hearing impairments

Orthopedic Impairment: an orthopedic impairment that severely affects the educational performance of a child.


– Congenital anomaly (birth defects)

-Diseases (bone tuberculosis, poliomyelitis)

-Cerebral palsy


-Fractures and burns causing contractures


– Limited limb mobility

-Loss of urinary control

-Loss of proper spine alignment

-Involuntary movement


– About 68,188 students fall under this category, according to the Department of Education (US)

Potential Impact on Learning

– Non-accessible transportation

-Ineffective communication

-Difficulty in navigating school hallways

-Problems maneuvering around the classroom

-Sensory issues

Other Health Impairment: Having less vitality, strength, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to stimuli in the environment, which causes limited alertness with respect to educational environment


– Diabetes

-Attention deficit disorder


-Heart condition



-Lead poisoning

-Tourette syndrome


-Rheumatic fever


– Mobility issues


-Difficulty in coordination

-Problems with paying attention

-Lack of stamina

-Muscle weakness


– About 452, 000 students fall under this category

Potential Impact on Learning

– Intellectual functioning

-Social and emotional functioning

-Executive functioning

Specific Learning Disability: a sickness in one or more of the general physiological processes, involved in understanding or using spoken or written language, and which may present itself in the inability to think, listen, write, read or do mathematical calculations


– Brain injury

-Emotional disturbance

-Intellectual disabilities

-Cultural, economic or environmental disadvantage


– Poor motor abilities

-Reading difficulties

-Oral language disabilities

-Social skills deficits

-Problem paying attention

-Lack of cognitive strategies


– In US 2.8 million students are receiving services for specific learning disabilities, 47.4% of which fall under this category

Potential Impact on Learning

-Poor reading comprehension

-Difficulty in reading out loud

-Difficulty holding a pencil

-Problems with understanding lectures

-Inability to write essays

Speech or Language Impairment: a communication disability that includes impaired articulation, stuttering, voice impairment as well as language impairment, that adversely impacts on the educational performance of a child


– Brain injury

-Neurological disorders

-Hearing loss

-Intellectual disabilities

-Physical impairments (cleft lip or palate)

-Drug abuse




-Poor vocabulary development

-Inability to comprehend word meanings

-Lack of understanding of rules for eye contacts, introducing topics, requesting information, respecting personal space


– About 20% of the children who receive special education services fall under this category

Potential Impact on Learning

-Problems with participation in classroom discussions

-Ineffective communication with peers and teachers

-Problems with giving or understanding oral presentations

-Inability to attain normalcy within a group

Traumatic Brain injury: An acquired brain injury caused by an external forces, which results in a total or partial functional disability as well as psychosocial impairment that severely affects the educational performance of a child


-External physical force


– Problems concentrating

-Short-term and long-terms memory difficulties

-Difficulties in relating with peers



– Is common during three specific age periods: birth- 5years, 15-24years, and over 70 years

Potential Impact on Learning

– Difficulties in taking exams and tests

-Difficulties in learning new skills

-Difficulties in following complex directions

Visual Impairment Including Blindness : an impairment of vision that adversely affects the educational performance of a child, even with correction


– Hereditary

-Injury to the eyes

-Infection ( German measles)




– Irregular movements of the eyes

-Unusual sitting close to the television or holding a book very close to the face

-Unusual behaviors like covering one eye or frequently rubbing the eyes


– The rate of occurrence of visual impairment, according to the National Dissemination Center for children with Disabilities is at 12.2% per 1000

Potential Impact on Learning:

– Challenges in reading

-Difficulties in conceptualizing objects

-Problems with safely maneuvering around the school

Difficulties in operating standard educational tools like calculators


SpecialEducation Guide, DisabilityProfiles. Retrievedon May 6, 2016 from: