The Greeks approached the mysteries of the universe with a rationally and not based on mythological expressions. Thales was the first of the Pre-Socratics. He learned mathematics from the Babylonians and geometry from Egyptians. He believed that water was the basic element of the universe. Everything was composed of water. His arguments about water were not accepted by others although they believe that he is in the right tract in discovering the origin of matter.
Anaximander, student of Thales, believed that the basic element of the universe in boundless and changing every second. Hippocrates also emerged during those times for his works on the human body which he based on rational explanations. He was noted to be the father of medicine. Socrates, thought of a sophist at first, was a famous Greek philosopher. He argued that the truth is within our minds and can be retrieved through reason. The dialectic method is used by conversing and questioning statements to come up with the truth.
Plato, student of Socrates, believed on Socrates work that we earn the truth. He focused on finding the absolute truth. He was the first to formula utopia. Aristotle, student of Plato, dealt with the nature of man. He said that the state of nature is composed of God, man and beast. Man for him is a beast and becomes a man because of his reason. The Final Act (404-338 BC) The period was first seen as a turbulent era but in reality it was the period were the ideas of Plato and Aristotle flourished.
It was the era where architecture of Greece was at its best. The Peloponnesian war was over and the aftermath devastated Greece. The land tried to rise up by solidifying its political concepts. The concept of Common Peace and Federalism was visualized. Common peace is where there should be equality among citizens to avoid conflict due to difference. Federalism, on the other hand, is gaining security by states. Each state should have their own laws according to the preference of its citizen. A State has the right to defend itself from outside forces.