Ethical decision making through child birth essay

This review of Literature focuses on these two questions: Who should decide on gender reclassification? Should the baby be allowed to reach the age of puberty or age of consent and then decide about reclassification? In the article by Dean Spade, Gender reclassification is governed by formal and informal policies and procedures at the state and local levels of the country, one of the factors including the age of consent, believing that in assertion that children should have some say in what they do with their own bodies. They should be free to decide, as a matter of right, whether or not they want a gender change.

Therefore, it is imperative that parents do not take the decision themselves at the time of child birth and let the child decide what to do about gender reclassification. Though we also know that children cannot always arrive to a right decision, the United Nations Organization proclaimed a Universal Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, stating everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms encompassed in this Declaration without discrimination of any kind, such as race, color, sex, language, religious opinion, national or social origin, birth or other status.

Therefore the child should be given legal protection and certain rights to make this decision. In this regard, we need to evaluate whether reclassification at child birth can be performed without taking the consent and decision of the child or not. It is imperative to understand that each human has the right to decline on the medical treatments performed on them and therefore, consent from the child has to be taken to perform medical treatment for gender reclassification. Should age be factor in permitting pregnancy/parenthood via A. R. T.?

Assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have enabled millions of people in the world to have biological children who otherwise would not have been able to do so, while in some of the countries many couples are delaying their child bearing due to many reasons. Currently it is not included as part of broad-based reproductive health or rights. Couples planning to bear child children after 30-35 of age have increased the risk of reproductive failures. Therefore, ART helps couples to have children when they would otherwise not have been able to do so.

Success rates of pregnancy via A. R. T depend on many factors, especially maternal age and the quality of the accompanying sperm. The age has a vast impact on the reproductive system of both males as well as females. The age of the women determines the health impact to carry out the artificial reproductive technique. These techniques namely including Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), Vitro Fertilization (IVF), Donor Eggs and Surrogacy or Artificial Insemination (AI), have success rates which can range from 5-30% mainly depending on the age of the woman who has donated the egg.

The social, medical, legal, and ethical reasoning that has traditionally promoted this lack of equity in access to assisted reproductive techniques (A. R. T), and the criteria used for client the selection are ethically appropriate in some particular case, especially the age. Women are less likely to become pregnant as they become older, and success rates of fertility treatments decrease with age as well since production of eggs by the woman’s ovaries declines over age.

With regard to reproduction, women need to be in charge of their own fertility and have access to a wide range of safe and effective contraceptive and reproductive options in order to have their own children.


Peterson, Assisted Reproductive Techniques and quality of equity of access issues, Journal of Medical Ethics, 31 (5) 280 Dean Spade, Documenting Gender, retrieved from http://www. gseis. ucla. edu/cie/Files/Dean_Spade_Article. pdf