Global Governance is a term widely used in this contemporary world. The new world order is defined as an age of Global governance. After the ravage of the Second World War and the critical phase of the Cold War, The role of International Organizations like the United Nations, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) has increased. In this essay, the functioning and importance of such international organizations will be discussed. In this new world order, economy and environment too has become a major factor.
Economic agencies like the World Bank, World Trade Organization and the International Monetary Fund along with several other important functionaries have diminished the role of the state largely. The world order nowadays is largely defined based on the American hegemony and it is being said that the United States of America runs global governance along with such various institutions. On the other hand, right now the primary concern of the globe is the environment factor. The world, it is being argued by the environmentalists is running towards perdition.
To avoid such danger solution was suggested in the recently concluded Copenhagen summit. In this essay we would primarily discuss the effects and implications of global governance related to Economic and environment arena. Global governance though as a concept explores Human rights, Civil society and other related causes but we will strictly discuss the above mentioned factors as presently they are of the main importance in the new world order. Primarily, we might argue that the term global governance is full of vagueness.
Different scholars have come up with different ideas and concepts. In this era of, we often use the term ‘Global Village’. From here, the term global governance emerges. The role of states and nations while determining their foreign policies, structural governance has decreased in this age of Globalization. The inevitability of globalization had made the world a closely-knit place. No one can formulate his or her own policies whether be economic or defense with out the prior green signal of the International world order.
Sanctions are put on defiance. We are witness to such sanctions in the history. It is a bit difficult to define the term global governance and it will be vague to put any sort definition on pen and paper. Nevertheless, the term is loosely defined as “Collective action to establish international institutions and norms to cope with the causes and consequences of adverse supranational, transnational or national problems. ”[Vayrynen, 1999] The recent impetus of the concept is broadly derived from three sources.
First is without doubt the end of the Cold War. The turmoil and chaos of the two power lobbies disrupted the proper functioning of various nations. Either one had to join the USA or the Soviet Russia. So, after the breaking of the Berlin Wall which symbolized the end of the war there was an increase in the level of expectations that the international institutions will play a much active role. The international system was acting inimical to the third world during this period so reliance was reposed on the United Nations.
Secondly, the subsequent rise of Globalization and the concept of welfare state ushered in a new thinking and imparted a sense of cohesion. And finally that the world would need an organized effort, to get rid of the negative aspects that we are facing presently. Critics argue that such a notion of Global governance is inimical to the concept of sovereignty. The integrity of any nation is contested as the grip of international institutions and their sanctions on any sort of defiance takes its toll.
Apart from this, the concept becomes highly politicized because the interest of the western states. Primarily the United States of America are made valid through such institutions. The supremacy of the USA is a well-known fact and their manipulation inside institutions frequently reported. The USA, recognized as controller of the economic agencies is criticized and leaves a negative impact for global governance. As the new world order synchronizes with global governance the more US effect overcomes. The various international organizations are controlled by the USA.
The most important among the Global-governing agents is the United Nations with its various organs and a member base The Security Council, International Court of Justice and few more organs helps the United Nations to confirm its norms on the member states. 5member states are given permanent voting powers in the Security Council. The United Nations was established in the year 1919 as an aftermath of the First World War. As an international organization, it failed to prevent the Second World War. During those days the concept and theories of Global Governance was not into practice like in these days.
The formation of the United Nations was the first instance of global governance. The failure of the League of Nations did not cease its existence. After the Second World War, the United Nations had transformed and the total structure is revolutionized and caters as an important actor of global governance. The norms and regulations to abide to the phenomenon of Global governance set up by the different organs of the United Nations shifts the world towards a new order. The workings of the United Nations have been closely scrutinized from close quarters.
Mainly, the achievements of the UN are eulogized by the western world. In the words of Thomas Franck: “Love them or hate them, however, international regimes are likely only to increase their importance in the governance of humanity. International regimes are necessarily normative and administrative solutions to international problems. No amount of wishful thinking can justify a state “opting out” of regimes that regulate trade, the environment, communications, transportation, human rights, collective security, arms or disease control”[Krasno, Jean, E, 2004].
The UN has been a pioneering organization for the welfare and management of global governance. Since its inception in the year 1945, it had faced an uphill for conglomerating the globe. The activities range from human rights, crime prevention, and environmental law through its wing of International Court of Justice. When it comes to the world economy and global governance, the UN plays an active role, which is evident from the fact that it has initiated the ECOSOC. The Economics and the Social Council of the UN focuses on the economic integration perspective of the world as well as social development.
The UN exerts regulatory powers on the financial institutions like the World Bank and the IMF. Member nations always pressurized the UN to get a grip in the economic legislations of the world, which will lead to greater global governance in the arena of world economy. The UN has the UNCTAD as the prior most organs to deal with the economic wing. It was developed in the year 1964. The pressure of setting up of the UNCTAD is reposed to the third world. They did not have faith in the ECOSOC as it was primarily seen as an organ reflecting the ideas and dominance of the West.
Later, the ECOSOC lost its dominance. The Third world needed social development apart from economic development. It is summed in the following lines “Another factor which played a role in the proliferation of new organs was the developing countries’ attempt to ensure that they would have a greater influence in the new organs than in the existing specialized or related organizations. Thus, their rejection of GATT contributed to the setting up of UNCTAD, and their discontent with voting ratios in the World Bank group led to the creation of the Capital Development Fund.
” [Themaat, Verloron, Pieter, 1981] From the above-mentioned statement, we can easily fathom the great depth that the UN traverses in the economics of the World. Economy is such a factor that it leads to environment. “The question of economic growth is at the core of most of the debates over the global economy and the environment, because it is intricately tied to debates over wealth and poverty and their relationship to the quality of the natural environment” [Clapp and Dauvergne, 2008].
The more the economic development and integration of the world the more affected the global environment becomes. Global governance leads to more economic cohesion and as the economic prosperity increases environment takes its toll. It is evident from the fact that in the present day Global warming and its allied effects is disrupting the day to day living of the people of the world. Economic Globalization is an important thing that cannot be negated.
Herein lay the role of the UN to prevent such a negative eff3ct of global governance. The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) deals with such menace. UNEP identifies the challenges posed to the world and the opportunities that we must risk to save the world. The UNEP is always in the constant process of organizing seminars, conferences and ways to draft possibilities to save from the environmental disasters. This is done in accordance with all the member states.