CRITIQUE OF THE EVOLUTION THEORY 1
Critiqueof the Evolution theory
Critiqueof the Evolution theory
Thetheory of evolution and natural selection was first formulated byCharles Darwinin 1859. The theory, also described as ‘survivalof the fittest’ is one of the best substantiated theories in thehistory of science. The theory holds a notion that all earthly lifeis relatedto each other and has a common ancestry. According tothe theory, the different modification amongst animals arose throughthe natural selection process, where some traits were favored in theenvironment over others (Beyer, 2001). The theory postulates thatevolution is gradual and involves the inheritance of beneficialtraits, which are the physical and behavioral traits that help anorganism to better adapt to its environment. These traits areinherited from parents and passed on to successive generations,making the successive generation more resilient in their environmentthan their parent. The theory is supported by evidence from a widevariety of scientific disciplines such as developmental biology,genetics, geology and paleontology, making the theory the mostsubstantiated theory of existence (Greenberger, 2005). This papergives an in-depth critique of the Darwin evolution theory andexplores the various evidence and critiques used against thetheory, leading to the opinion that though facing numerouscriticisms, the Darwin evolution theory is one of the best theorythat explains the origin and development of life as we know it .
TheDarwin theory of evolution has been under intense scrutiny andinvestigation to discredit or approve the reliability ofthe theory.Since then, the different subjects have produced extensive evidenceto support validity of the theory Biochemistry, the study of the basic chemistry and processes of all life forms show that the biochemistry of all living things are incredibly similar, thus arelikely to have a similar ancestry. According to research, humans have96% genetic similarities with the Chimpanzees, 90% in common withcats, 80% in common with cows among other animals (Beyer, 2001). Thegenetic similarities evidence that humans, and other animals areclosely related, thus the likelihood of common ancestry. Additionally, research shows that all living things are fundamentallysimilar in their chemical compositions, whether they are the singleor multi-cellular. Besides, all plants and animals get their specificDNA composition from their parents by combining specificcharacteristics of their parents, which is a typical of the evolutiontheory. These DNA contain chemically coded recipients, all which arelinked together with amino acids. Despite the large variability ofliving things, the Amino Acids in DNAs are almost similar, anevidence of the fundamentalmolecular unity of life as postulated bythe evolution theory (Greenberger, 2005).
Moreover,the anatomical structure of different living things show that all animals have a similar ancestry and that the structures oftheir skeletons got differentiated as each organism became moreadapted to its environment. Comparative anatomy shows that the humanlimbs are related to fins in fishes, and wings in birds. Thesesimilarities are well expounded in Neil Shubin’s book YourInner Fish,which reveals how human bodies are the legacy of ancient fish,reptiles and primates using embryos, fossils and genes (Shubin,2009). The assertions of similar ancestry are supported by fossilrecords which show a smooth and gradual transition of life from oneform to another. One largely quoted fossil evidence for theprogressed evolution is the archaeopteryx fossil. The archaeopteryxhad jaws with teeth and long bony tail like a dinosaur, broad andfeathered wings that resembled a bird, and skeletal features of botha reptile, thus proof that the birds trace their origins to thereptiles. Fossil records have also been used to prove the evolutionof man from his primate relatives. As such, the fossil recordevidence that the modern complex plants and animals were precededby earlier simple animals and plants, and that the complexitiesand differences in animals evolved and changed according toenvironmental differences, which are pivotal evidence for the evolution theory (Shubin, 2009).
Despitethese pieces of evidence supporting the theory, it has someinconsistencies which are often cited by critics to discredit itsreliability. For one, the critics argue thatthere is no one thathas ever seen the revolution process happens critics argue that ifevolution were a true process, it would still be occurring and therewould be many transitional forms of life. Instead, there aredifferent kinds of plants and animals but which are distinctivelydifferent from each other without bridgeable gaps between the kinds(Denton, 2002). To counter the critics that evolution is unreal sinceno one who has ever observed it, evolutionally scientists have arguedthat as definedby Darwin, the process is gradual and outliveshuman existence. The proponents use the evidence of fossil records toshowthe existence of the evolution process. However, the fact is,though there are billions fossil records, there is no singleequivocal transition from the original form of life to the differentforms of life. These missing links form the basis of critic’sarguments against evolution (Greenberger, 2005).
Accordingto Darwin, evolution in a continual state of motion Logically, thiswould mean that there should be a fossil record or existing animalsthat have transitional characteristics from the less to the moreevolved, or from one breed to another. However the evolution of lifefrom a non-life form, to evolutionof vertebrates from invertebratesand man from apes lacks the missing links, both in fossil records andthe present world. Critics note that though there are many varietiesof animals that are supposedly related, such as cats and dogs, thereis no breed that bridges the gap between these related animals(Denton, 2002). Evolutionary scientists have tried to experimentusing rapidly reproducing species such as the fruit flies to inducemutational changes that would bring forth new and better species butfailed. This inability to evidence the evolution process inlaboratories has been one of the major criticisms of the theory.Thepostulation that life naturally evolved from a non-life is anothercontroversial assertion of the evolution theory. According to thetheory, life started from non-life form and evolved naturally, anassertion that is highly criticized that it fails to explain how lifeemerges from non-life. Research shows that the development of aliving cell from organic matter and elements is impossible (Denton,2002).
Overall,the truth is, despite the seemingly numerous criticisms of theevolution theory, the theory has been reliably used to explain someanatomical changes in varied plans and animals. For instance, thetheory has been used to explain the changes in peppered moths inBritain (Greenberger, 2005). Before the industrial revolution, mostpeppered moths had a pale color, which allowed them to camouflageagainst the pale birch trees, thus avoiding their predators. On thecontrary, the moths with the mutated black color could notcamouflage they were easily spotted by predators and eaten, thuswere less likely to survive and reproduce. However, the industrialrevolution changed all this, whereby the soot from industriesblackened the birch trees. This meant that the mutated black mothswere camouflaged and the white variety was more vulnerable topredators. Thus, the black peppered moths became more numerous inurban areas since they could survive and reproduce more than the palecolored peppered moths (Greenberger, 2005). Antibiotic-resistantmicroorganisms such as bacteria and viruses are other appropriateevidence for the existence of evolution. The ability of thesemicroorganisms reproduces rapidly, and with time, they mutate and areable to withstand the harmful effects of antibiotics (Beyer, 2001).
Inretrospection, the Darwin evolutionally theorypostulates that alllife forms are related as they have a common ancestry. According tothe theory, life form began from a non-life form and graduallydeveloped to the complex life forms of the modern world. Differentfossils, among them the fossil records, chemical and anatomicalsimilarities between living things, and the mutationalcharacteristics of peppered months and antibiotic-resistantmicroorganisms have been used to support the existence of theevolution. However, the theory has been criticized for lack ofconsistent fossil record to show the progression of life, theinaccuracy of the postulation that lifebegan from non-life form andthefact that the process has never been observed by humans,naturally or in laboratories. Despite these shortcomings, the theoryis a reliable theory that, if combined with other theories, wouldsuccinctly explain the start and development of life as we know ittoday.
Beyer,H.-G. (2001). Thetheory of evolution strategies: With 9 tables.Berlin [u.a.: Springer.
Denton,M. (2002). Evolution:A theory in crisis.Bethesda, Md: Adler & Adler.
Greenberger,R. (2005). Darwinand the theory of evolution.New York: Rosen Pub. Group, Inc.
Shubin,N. (2009). Yourinner fish: A journey into the 3.5-billion-year history of the humanbody.New York: Vintage Books