Nationalculture is perceivable as the symbols, traditions, heroes, values,and rituals that help to cultivate and shape the desired behavior inan organization. Through national culture, employees` view of theworld and their responses to the work environment is influencedsignificantly.
Theexternal environment is any situation or condition that is foundoutside the environment of the organization but has influence overthe performance of the organization, for instance, technologicaladvancements, government, and social systems. Organizations havelittle influence over the external environment due to its temporalnature.
Organizationalculture can be viewed as how things are done in an organization.Organizational structures (for instance, virtual or decentralized)and physical space (corporate playgrounds and mobile furniture)reinforce how organizational beliefs and traditions appear.
Organizationalstructures intertwine with the hierarchical formation oforganizations. Thus, through organizational structures, the lines ofauthority and responsibility and the connection betweenorganizational components are highlighted.
Climateis perceivable as the feelings, behaviors, and attitudes that setapart existence in an organization. Employees in organizations viewthe climate in their affiliate organizations in different ways.
Physicalspace can be regarded as the physical features of an organization andthe impact of designing the workspace to inspire creativity in anorganization. Physical structures can offer organizations that usethese spaces to enhance their performance and innovation significantcompetitive advantage.
Pixarhas a reputation for producing a string of hit movies. According toEd Catmull, a number of principles can be attributed to the highlevel of creativity in the company. For instance, the employees atPixar are empowered to make suggestions at every stage of ideaadvancement. In essence, artists, directors, writers, and storyboardpeople come together to develop and refine ideas until these ideasform the basis of great films. Also, employees cooperate to encourageeach other to produce the best results. To achieve this end crewsview daily animation work to help rid the workers of emotionalembarrassment over unfinished work. More importantly, employees havefreedom to communicate with anyone without having to go through"proper" channels. In other words, managers are notexpected to know everything that goes on in the organization walkinginto a meeting and being surprised when they (managers) learn aboutan issue that has gone wrong in the organization is acceptable.Lastly, Pixar has developed an environment where employees can learn.Pixar University offers its employees training in multiple areas tohelp them advance their careers. Therefore, workers from differentdepartments can work together and appreciate the input of eachother`s work.
Lateralthinking is understood as the pursuance of different concepts,perceptions, and points of entry in a bid to develop thinking that isdifferent from mainstream belief. Various methods, for instance,provocations, can also be used to achieve this end. Normal logicposits that the best approach to reaching the desired end is topursue particular "truths" and "what is." Lateralthinking, conversely, deals with "what might be" anddistinct "possibilities." The advantage of this type ofthinking is that through the process of building up layers of whatcould be, one, eventually, realizes a useful picture. In somerespects, changing conventional concepts and perceptions forms a firmfoundation for creativity and new ideas.