Cranial Nerves essay




Cranialnerves refer to the nerves that run from the brain, including thebrain stem. This is unlike the spinal nerves which are known toemerge from the spinal cord. Cranial nerves are used for relayinginformation from the brain to the rest of the body parts. Primarily,it can be said it sends messages to and from head regions and neck(Thiruvenkatarajanet al, 2015).There are 12 cranial nerves pairs and runs through foramina either ingroups or individually. Some of the cranial nerves include: Olfactoryfor sense of smell, Optic II, for vision, Oculomotor for moving eyes,Troclear, for eye movement, Trigeminal, abducens, Facial,Vestibulocochlear, Vagus, Glossopharyngeal, Accessory, andHypoglossal(Dachet al, 2015).

OpticII is also known as Cranialnerve IIis one of the nerves that play a key role in the human body. Thenerve transmits visual related information from the eye retina to thebrain. Some common ways that the nerve can be damaged include:glaucoma/high pressure in the eye, compression of the nerve,inflammation, infection, and interruption in the blood circulation,malignancy, and trauma (causes blurring and scotomata). Immediateloss of vision can be a result of injury to the optic II, which canbe caused by ischemia or edema. Delayed loss of vision caused byinfarction of the nerve (Dachet al, 2015).

Damagedto the optic II can result into permanent and potentially loss ofvision or vision distortion or even worse case of blindness. However,optic II damage can be detected through conduction of a comprehensiveeye examination (Kurosakaet al, 2015).This would help reduce the chances of serious complications andpreserve one’s vision. In addition, gene therapy can also be usedfor optic nerve disease. There is also the use of megadose steroidsfor patients with partial visual function. More so, there is asurgical decomposition of the nerve, and the use of eyeglasses mayalso help to improve blurred vision (Lyonset al, 2015).


Thiruvenkatarajan,V., Van Wijk, R. M., &amp Rajbhoj, A. (2015). Cranial nerve injurieswith supraglottic airway devices: a systematic review of publishedcase reports and series.Anaesthesia,&nbsp70(3),344-359.

Dach,F., Éckeli, Á. L., Ferreira, K. S., &amp Speciali, J. G. (2015).Nerve Block for the Treatment of Headaches and Cranial Neuralgias – APractical Approach.&nbspHeadache:The Journal of Head &amp Face Pain,&nbsp5559-71.

Lyons,C. J., Godoy, F., &amp ALQahtani, E. (2015). Cranial nerve palsiesin childhood.&nbspEye,&nbsp29(2),246-251.

Kurosaka,H., Trainor, P. A., Leroux-Berger, M., &amp Iulianella, A. (2015).Cranial Nerve Development Requires Co-Ordinated Shh and Canonical WntSignaling.&nbspPlosONE,&nbsp10(3),1-19.