Bolman and Deals Reframing Organizations
Accordingto Bolman and Deal, there are four different frames from which peopleview the world. The organizational constructs include political,structural, symbolic and human resources (Bess & Goldman, 2015).Although people show a preference for two or three frames, no oneuses only one frame all time.
The structural organizational frame entails establishing goals,specialized roles to improve productivity, division of labor, rules,and hierarchies exist, and origin of problems which arise if thestructure does not fit the situation. This model help in determininghow to allocate work based on time, geography, and knowledge. Inaddition, the model aids in coordinating different roles.
The human resource structure aims at synergizing human energy inan organization. It advocates that the organization should be anextended family, tailor organization to the people, and goodcollaterals between the organization and individuals lead to jobsatisfaction. This model prevents the exploitation of individuals orthe organization (Bess & Goldman, 2015). Mc Gregor theory alsocontributes a great deal into the human resource frame.
The political construct is based on power, conflict andcoalitions. Leaders should learn to manage political forces whicharise from power relations. The frame also advocates that goals areset through negotiations. In addition, ongoing processes ofbargaining and negotiating influence the goals of the structure. Aneffective political manager clearly expresses agendas by settinggoals, statements of interest, and develops strategies (Bess &Goldman, 2015)
The symbolic frame advocates that the meaning of an event is moresignificant than the event. The central of symbolism is faith,meaning and belief. It is based on the following principles themeaning of the event, problem solving and decision making andorganizational events are critical for what they express.
•Myths, stories, and fairy stories give explanations
•Rituals and ceremonies provide heritage
•Metaphor, play, and humor express the situation
Mythsgive an explanation behind a story. They help in the creation ofinternal cohesion, confidence and a sense of direction. Organizationsdepend on myths. Stories and fairy tales convey moral values in theorganization. Rituals help to orient newcomers, create order andprecision in the organization. Metaphor, play and humor aid to easethe pressure and tension.
Bolmanand Deal Four Frame Breakdown
The central concept
Environment, policies, rules, roles
Relationship, needs, skills
Organizational policy, power,
Heroes, culture, ceremony, meaning, metaphor
Contribution by leaders
Lynn’sLeadership and Management Model
Accordingto Lynn situational models are difficult to prove though they arecorrect. Situational model is best developed through a balance of artand science. The agency and game theory is a base point for researchto prove situational leadership theory. A conceptual decisionapproach is achieved by a combination of both empirical andpractitioner schemes. Lynn supports a long term and individualizedview. In conclusion, Lynn advocates that the leader is more importantthan the organization (Bess & Goldman, 2015). Lynn also believesthat success depends on skills and experience, design for change,personality and favor of the situation
The model is aligned with a comprehensive approach to leadership.Interaction of situational variables and leaders behavior affectsorganizational performance. The entrepreneurial style also aids inorganizational success. Yukl’s model is aligned to long-termsituational variables such as reward, technology, and policies (Bess& Goldman, 2015). In conclusion, the model advocates forempirical leadership as compared to practitioner situationalleadership.
Hargroveand Glidewell’s Leadership Model
The model focuses more on coping than leading. A leader must alwaysbe ready to respond to focal changes. Hargrove advocates that anaccommodation strategy is better compared to a consensus creationstrategy. This leadership model explains a good entrepreneurialleader as one who is dynamic, able to direct the organization throughpolitical waves and flexible. An able leader easily implementscontingency plans. In conclusion, in regard to situational variables,Hargrove views the organization as a catalyst (Bess & Goldman,2015). The art of effective public leadership is less important,compared to the leader as a practitioner.
Timehorizon, foundation, focal point, important leadership skills, andsystem employed are used to evaluate the different models. The modelfocuses more on coping than leading. A leader must always be ready torespond to focal changes. Hargrove advocates that an accommodationstrategy is best compared to a consensus creation strategy. Thisleadership model explains a good entrepreneurial leader as one who isdynamic, able to direct the organization through political waves andflexible. An able leader easily implements contingency plans. Inconclusion, with regard to situational variables, Hargrove views theorganization as a catalyst and not the leader (Bess & Goldman,2015). The art of effective public leadership is less important,compared to the leader as a practitioner.
Comparisonof the Four Models
Time horizon, foundation, focal point, important leadership skills,and system employed are used to evaluate the different models.
Breakdownof the Comparison
Both short and long term
Vision and behavior of leaders
Through evaluation and vision development
Bolman and Deal
More short term than long term
Aligned more to practitioner than empirical
Integration of Decision-support system
Application of knowledge
Hargrove and Glidewell
More long term than short term
Aligned more to empirical than practitioner
In conclusion, the models come from different perspectives. Eachmodel requires leaders to evaluate the situation. Different criticalconcept influences the choice of the model.
Bess, J. L., &Goldman, P. (2015). Leadership ambiguity in universities and K–12schools and the limits of contemporary leadership theory. TheLeadership Quarterly, 12(4), 419-450.