Considerations Prentice essay

The traditional counseling theory that I most connected with in the nine traditional theories critiqued, is the Freudian Psychoanalytic theory. Sigmund Freud, was a well-known psychotherapist, and relied heavily on his theories of the unconscious mind in his practice. Other psychotherapist such as Carl Jung, believed in the power of the unconscious mind, and that it had effects on our conscious thoughts. Unlike Freud, Carl Jung used the dreams of his patients to map out the territory of the unconscious mind.

Jung common theme between both Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud is that we all possess a collective unconscious, basically meaning that history is a part of us all and in us all collectively. Both Sigmund Freud and Carl Jang believe the subconscious mind affected and controlled behavior patterns. Sigmund Freud believed that events in our life were stored unconsciously, and could manifest themselves in negative behavior patterns in the future.

Although Sigmund Freud and Carl Young’s research may have seemed crazy for their time, with the recent discovery of reverse speech, by an Australian researcher named David Oates, we now can hear our unconscious mind in audible forms. What David Oates has discovered is that our unconscious mind speaks in reverse during everyday normal human communication; in essence, human communication is bi-level, the forwards or the overt language, and in reverse, or the covert language (Oates, 1996). What’s stunning about Mr.

Oates research is that it lies in conjunction with that of Carl Young and Sigmund Freud. The unconscious mind speaks using archetypes and metaphors, when the pictures of the unconscious mind change, so to do the behaviors of the individual. Sigmund Freud developed a technique during his research, called free association, and which he asked his clients to express any random thoughts that came there mind, in order to uncover on articulated material from the realm of the psyche that Freud, Carl Jang, and David Oates have deemed is the unconscious (Capuzzi & Gross, 2003).

Freud believed that when his clients experience difficulty with freely associating their thoughts, sudden silences, stuttering, or the like suggested to Freud, The importance of the material struggling to be expressed (Britannica Encyclopedia, 2008). Psychologists now call sudden stuttering, or a slip of the tongue, Freudian slips. When working with groups of different backgrounds and cultures, it is important and that you are tolerant to other diversities.

When working with different ethnic groups such as an African-American, it is important to realize a disadvantage status, racism, and poverty that have impacted African-Americans throughout the history of our country. African-Americans have been shaped by controlled factors, such as the Jim Crow system that was predominant in the 1960s.

It is important to consider that cultural biases in counseling and psychotherapy have been documented by many sources, many of which have pointed to how therapists protect themselves from the reality of change by surrounding themselves with the cocoon of pretend reality, a reality which is usually based upon the past, and seeing things as though they will never change. I think it is important for me to look to the reality of the situation and realize that there have been many cultural factors that shaped the values of African-Americans, and I must be tolerant towards those factors.

The steps I need to take to assure that the strengths and limitations of the theory I have chosen do not negatively impact working with my client, who was an African-American, would include; keeping in mind the impacts racism has had on their culture, developing strong kinship bonds with them, and stressing to them that advances can be made through hard work. When working with the unconscious mind of the individual, whether they be native American, Latino, African American, it will always reflect the past experiences of the individual, as well as the collective experiences of humanity as a whole.

I will make sure that I am considerate of the cultural diverse cities between my clients, which will in turn produce a positive impact on my client instead of a negative one.


Oates, David (1996) Reverse Speech Voices from the Unconscious promotion publications Arciniega & Newlon (2003) Counseling and Psychotherapy Multicultural Considerations Prentice Hall Publications Freud, Sigmund. (2008). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved April 20, 2008, from Encyclopedia Britannica Online: http://www. britannica. com/eb/article-22601