As noted by, computerized assessment methods have proliferated since their initial development nearly 40 years ago. Listed 72 separate suppliers of over 300 computer-based assessment products, nearly half of which were designed to assist personality evaluation, there are several rationales underlying computer-based interpretation of test data. Foremost among these is the premise that “…
Well-designed statistical treatment of test results and ancillary information will yield more valid assessment than will an individual professional using the same information” Additional arguments favoring CBTIs are that they potentially can (a) reduce errors of response recording and scoring, (b) generate interpretive findings quickly and efficiently for use in early clinical sessions, (c) minimize subjectivity in selecting and emphasizing interpretive material, (d) provide a comprehensive and objective summary of relevant test-based hypotheses, (e) offer more thorough documentation than clinician-based narratives, (f) access large data bases and process a greater number and complexity of variables, and (g) systematically index and store data for subsequent use in research.
However, offsetting these potential benefits are also serious limitations. Foremost among these is the general consensus that most CBTI systems have not been evaluated properly, if at all. Additional limitations of CBTIs are that they potentially can (a) promote an overly passive attitude toward clinical evaluation, (b) lend an unwarranted impression of scientific precision, (c) rely on generalities precluding differential descriptions of respondents, and (d) promote misuse through increased availability to inadequately trained consumers. Indiscriminate or automatic use of computerized interpretive reports presents significant risks not only to the test respondent, but also to the clinician.
Practitioners may be held liable when an inaccurate computer-based interpretation is included in an assessment without adequate evaluation of its appropriateness. Noted that between 1976 and 1986, misdiagnosis cases constituted 6% of malpractice claims against psychologists and 7% of financial settlements. such claims can be expected to increase as computer-based assessment becomes more common. Given the dramatic contrast in potential strengths and liabilities, individuals contemplating the use of CBTIs should carefully consider conflicting evidence regarding their reliability, validity, and utility. (Holsapple, & Whinston 2006) Information Explosion and New Environment
The advances of technologies bring the prosperity of information society. For example, the functions of information products are getting powerful due to the continuously increase of semiconductors’ capacity (according to Moore’s law, semiconductors’ capacity double in about 18 months). The applications of laser technology to data storage change the way of storing data, and enhance the quality of storages. And the development of optical fiber and wireless communication greatly improves the speed and quality of information communication. As a result of information technology explosion, there are some phenomena: (i) information overload. (ii) Complexity of environment.
(iii) The appearance of new technologies, new product, new desire, and new management philosophy and methods. These phenomena have great influences not only on people’s behaviors and thinking paradigms, but also enterprises’ management operations. For instance, the tremendous increase in the accumulation of information and knowledge leads to people’s thinking paradigms becoming more complex, diverse, flexible, and less predictable. And because of these phenomena, the enterprise’s management objectives have evolved and accumulated from cost, quality, delivery time, flexibility, service, and innovation, to globalization. The information overload is one of the most pronounced phenomenons of the era of information explosion.
For a person, information overload means a perception by a person that the information associated with work task is greater than that can be managed effectively, and a perception that such overload creates a degree of stress for which the coping strategies are ineffective. (Cyert 2003) For an enterprise, information overload means that a situation in which the extent of perceived individual information overloads is sufficiently widespread within the organization so as to reduce the overall effectiveness of management operations. 2. 7. 16 Information eras is full of opportunities and crises. There may be opponents, unborn or unknown, who will eliminate our management models from the business competitions. Therefore, enterprises should realize that they lived in the environment being full of crises.
Bill Gates indicated that Microsoft would collapse in about two years if they do not continue the innovation. Note, for any enterprise, the competitions are not only on products, service, speed, flexibility, globalization, but also on management reengineering. With information technologies including computer, network, enterprise software, etc. the enterprise’s daily operations and processes now are changing. Customer relationship management (CRM) is already emerging as a distinct domain and information technology are being developed specifically for this. For example, General Motors uses a Geographical Positioning System (GPS) to locate customer’s vehicles, diagnose engines and even control their vehicle operations.
Therefore, corporate business management in information era must focus on changes and transitions in market, economy, product, technology, customer needs, and business models. Adapting to this new environment, decision technology has evolved rapidly from single criterion optimization to multiple criteria optimization. from static to dynamic. From deterministic to probabilistic, fuzzy, or unknown environment. (Siskos 1999) Behavior Mechanism and Habitual Domains Humans play games, compete, and make decisions. Therefore, human psychology and behavior mechanism play vital role in the process of decision-making. If IT cannot help people, IT would be useless. To understand how IT can help and influence people, we need to know human behavior mechanism and habitual domains | the software that drive the behaviors.