Chapter10: The Responsible Conduct of Academic Research
Theauthors speak about the modern academic life in this chapter. Theprimary focus being the need for protecting the integrity of theentire field. The reason is that academy has some unwritten standardsthat need to be followed for one’s research to be deemed credible.However, some unscrupulous scholars want to win at any cost and arelikely to take shortcuts and even completely mislead the readers. Thewriters explain some basic habits that academics should apply. Theyinclude good manners that automatically entails politeness whenassessing the work of others. Regulation is another aspect that manyscholars are required to comply with for their work to be accepted.Ethics is another topic that Deneef and Goodwin speak about in thischapter. Ethics is a precarious subject since its boundaries are notthat clearly defined. Scholars are also exempted from taking studiesthat are discordant with their ethics. Such studies may includeexperiments that deal with animal trials or genotype manipulation.The authors wind up by asserting on the readers that they shouldinsist on having good conduct whenever carrying out academicresearch. They finally address the situation where an individualnotices a colleague has had some unethical practices in their work.The best solution will be to report such a case to the chair of thefaculty with the relevant proof and wait for the proper verdict. Theconclusion of the chapter calls upon all scholars to ensure that theyalways ensure they treat the field of academics with respect anddignity it deserves (Deneef & Goodwin, 2007).
Myopinion on this chapter is that Deneef and Goodwin have raisedserious issues that concern responsibility in academic studies. It isimperative that any scholar who takes education as a serious field ofstudy to be keen and cautious whenever they handle any research. Iagree with the authors as that is the only way that this sector willmaintain the respect it has enjoyed for centuries.
Myquestion for this chapter is that in the cases where scholars takecredit for research they did not contribute, should laws be enactedso that such individuals face some form of penalty?
Chapter26: Publishing in Science
Theauthors talk about the issues that young scientists usually face whenthey try to publish their research. Deneef and Goodwin begin bysaying that the reason for posting one’s results is to providecredibility to their research so that it may not be pushed aside as amere folk tale. Several factors drive researchers to publish theirwork such as a sign that they have completed their study, to getrecognition from the scientific community, an attempt of remainingrelevant in the field of research and publication may be arequirement of the institution where these scientists work. Theformat that these papers take has remained rigid for over threecenturies. The items found in these publications include the title,the author’s name and address, an abstract, introduction, a sectionfor the methodology, results, discussion and conclusion, and finallythe bibliography. The authors explain how one should write thesepapers. They insist that the information should be direct withoutirrelevant details. Every aspect of the research process has to beincluded in the contents. The best part to begin with is themethodology followed by the results. Once the results are written, itbecomes easier to handle the discussion bit. Finally, theintroduction can be written then the abstract. The editing of thework can be dealt with through proofreading. After which, theresearcher can then choose the journal that they want to publishtheir article. The next step is to submit this work and wait for theresponse. Usually, the publishers may need the work to be shortened.The approach is to reduce the work while ensuring that the relevantinformation is not left out. Final proofreading can follow this stepto remove any errors. Deneef and Goodwin go ahead and explain when itcomes to the authorship of the paper, all the people that offeredtheir contribution have to be listed in an agreed format.Acknowledgments should be included to thank everyone that werehelpful in the compilation of the work. The authors conclude byremarking that in the instance that the scientist wants to publish inanother journal, they must state where the original writing was firstpublished (Deneef & Goodwin, 2007).
Thischapter provides useful information when it comes to publishingresearch work. I feel that the authors have comprehensively taught meall the sections I should cover when I decide to publish a scientificpaper.
Myquestion for this chapter is how can a young scientist findrecognition by publishing a paper that has significantly differentresults from an initially published work that may have seriouserrors?
Chapter23: Writing a Grant Proposal
Bullerbegins by stating the importance of writing a successful grant. Hestates that a well-written grant can be vital in ensuring a studentgets a scholarship, a researcher can get the necessary funding fortheir project, and once one receives a grant, they are likely to getothers. Grant writing can be achieved through eight key steps. Thefirst step is being an active steward of research funding. Thisprocess entails achieving all the goals of the study within thespecified time. To begin with, a researcher may start using internalgrants mainly from the institution and with time they can startseeking external funding. Application for an internal grant isrelatively easy as the applicant only has to fill a form with a fewdetails about the intended project and its relevance. Once one getsit, they should maintain all records and receipts for accountability.The second stage is to seek possible external grants. The institutioncan help with this process. Such sources vary from governmentalagencies to private firms. The third step is to use the internalresources for guidance when applying for these external grants. Mostof the faculty members would have experience in such matters, andtheir advice can be invaluable. The fourth step is to work closelywith the program officer from the funding agency. Even though thelaws prohibit the officer in charge of the grants from offering thechance based on bias, consulting with the person involved with theorganization is not a crime. The likelihood of getting the grant aremuch higher if the researcher frequently asks for advice whilewriting the proposal. The fifth part is being willing to alter theproposal according to the requirements of the funding agency. Thesixth step is to follow the five guidelines of grant writing whichare keeping the audience in mind, considering the reason that willmake the agency have interest in your project, creating theapplication in the right time, a focus on the outcomes of the studyand a description of how the project will be assessed. The seventhstep would be to include authoritative members of your institution toyour project as a sign that they understand the impact that it willhave for the university and the community in general. The eighthstage is to be resilient. The initial and even subsequentapplications may be rejected, but Buller advises that one shouldcontinue trying (Buller, 2009).
Thischapter offers insightful ideas on how a researcher can successfullyapply for and get funded through grants. All the steps were wellexplained, and I feel like the author helped me a great deal.
Howcan an applicant show the outcome of their research when they areconducting a study that they have no idea of the expected results?
Chapter29: University Governance and Autonomy
Theauthors tackle the issue of governance in learning institutions inthis chapter. The question posed is which stakeholders within theuniversities should be involved with matters affecting theiroperation? Also, should all issues be handled by the administrationin the campus itself or should other decisions be decided by outsidebodies such as legislators or courts of law? The chapter thus focuseson issues of participation when it comes to external matters such asproblems that may arise to disrupt autonomy in campuses. Mostuniversities are self-governing without much influence from theoutside. Nowadays, many groups such as administrators, trustees,faculty and students usually play some part in governance. The boardof directors is equipped with the responsibility of managing theinstitution according to the well-defined objectives and goals.Members of this board are selected through several avenues such asexternal elections, external appointments or even internalappointments. The central administration comprises of the universitypresident who has the power of implementing and monitoring anystrategy or venture. Other officials that are involved ingovernorship are the executive assistant and the director of equalemployment opportunity. The subordinate officials all work underthese posts that have been mentioned. The breakdown of the chain ofcommand then goes to schools headed by deans, then faculties andfinally departments. Deneef and Goodwin note that faculties feeltheir input in governorship is often neglected, and they need to havemore say. This situation came about due to two factors which areincreased involvement by outside people and the gradual loss ofautonomy. Autonomy is the ability of an institution to have fullcontrol over its decisions minus any influence from the outside.However, this full authority has constantly been reducing due tolimitations imposed by legislation and court orders. The authorsfinish the chapter by advising young scholars to play a role ingovernance and to accept external influence. The reason is that mostgrants and funds come from the outside, and they go a long way inensuring that learning can take place without a hitch (Deneef &Goodwin, 2007).
Thischapter has taught me details concerning governance in university, asubject that I had no prior knowledge. The authors have explained theentire hierarchy of administration and they have outlaid the reasonwhy it is important that young scholars should participate ingovernance. I think that this notion is helpful, and I will make achoice to be more active.
Ifthe universities entirely lose their autonomy, how will it affecttheir operation?
Chapter30: The Role of the Department in the Groves of Academe
Theauthors describe the department as the living symbol of the academicfield where a person gets professional learning. This statement isright as many scholars depend on their departments for education,guidance, and resources. The origin of this sector in the universitybegan in the last century. It became a vital part of the collegeeducation as it signified the specialization area for scholars.However, problems have been seen to happen that arise when there isinsufficient communication between departments. Initially beginningas independent, the department is no longer considered as such due toits complexity. The primary responsibilities for these departments asstated by the writers are handling the budget and distribution ofresources among the different programs. The chair is the main voicebehind these decisions. The chair also creates committees for varioussections to help run the day to day activities. Every department hasits constitution that ever chair must comply and follow its rules.The reason for this is to reduce the power that the chair may have inthe making of decisions. Thus, the chairperson supervises all theoperations such as delivery of lectures, assessment tests, andexaminations. Students’ performance is also relayed to the chairfor their consideration. Autonomy is less within the departmentsespecially when it comes to filling in of vacancies. The authorsfinalize the chapter by insisting on the importance of thedepartments and how crucial they are in the learning process. Thus,it should not be ignored (Deneef & Goodwin, 2007).
Thischapter gave me more information on governance at the departmentallevel. I was able to realize the significance of this sector and howit affects my education. I found this chapter more informative thanthe previous.
Doesthe chair of a department have the power to handle disciplinaryissues among students?
Chapter7: Special Challenges for Midcareer Faculty
Bullerexplains that the staff in midcareer faculty comprises of tenuredmembers that have intact careers. They consist of associateprofessors that have obtained a tenure due to their contributions inresearch or other areas within the institution. This stage is whereone faces many challenges both personal and professional. The authorstates that the chapter provides insights towards constantdevelopment career wise while balancing other obligations. Bullertalks of reconsidering of one’s priorities. The person can decideto move from teaching into research. Although they may face numerouspressure, if it is a personal decision, they should go for it. Thebenefits of this decision include being innovative in the field ofchoice, helps in the creation of better teaching techniques andenables the person to be involved with new advancements in theirstudy. Another option is to seek a scholarship for further studies orgrants for research. This move helps in amassing of credentials thatwould make this midcareer faculty member more qualified. Service suchas in the leadership sector is a good strategy. It assists inbuilding an impressive image that will help with career progress.This person should also set goals that relate to their career andwork towards attaining them at the specified time. Having goals willbe a motivation that guarantees to make one move up the professionalladder quickly (Buller, 2009).
Thischapter explains to the young tenured faculty members on the variousways that can help them progress in their careers. The bits of advicethat are given by the author are excellent, and when I reach thatstage in life, I will apply these strategies.
Duringthis period of one’s career, can one accept external contracts frompublic or private sectors?
Buller,J. (2009). Theessential college professor: A practical guide to an academic career.John Wiley & Sons.
Deneef,A. L., & Goodwin, C. D. (2007). Theacademic’s handbook.Duke University Press.